AP Chemistry Tutorials with Sal Khan

Video Lectures

Displaying all 124 video lectures.
Lecture 1
Introduction to chemistry
Play Video
Introduction to chemistry
A big picture intro to chemistry and why it is fascinating.

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 2
Elements and atoms | Atoms, compounds, and ions | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Elements and atoms | Atoms, compounds, and ions | Chemistry | Khan Academy
How elements relate to atoms. The basics of how protons, electrons and neutrons make up an atom.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/atomic-structu...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 3
Introduction to the atom | Chemistry of life | Biology | Khan Academy
Play Video
Introduction to the atom | Chemistry of life | Biology | Khan Academy
The atom, proton, neutron and electron

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/chemistry--of-li...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/chemistry--of-li...

Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course.





Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub...
Lecture 4
Orbitals | Electronic structure of atoms | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Orbitals | Electronic structure of atoms | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Introduction to orbitals. Relates energy shell to rows and periods in the periodic table. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electronic-str...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electronic-str...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 5
More on orbitals and electron configuration | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
More on orbitals and electron configuration | Chemistry | Khan Academy
How electron configuration is related to orbitals and the structure of the periodic table. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electronic-str...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electronic-str...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 6
Electron Configurations
Play Video
Electron Configurations
Introduction to using the periodic table to determine electron configurations
Lecture 7
Electron configurations 2 | Electronic structure of atoms | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Electron configurations 2 | Electronic structure of atoms | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Figuring out configurations for the d-block elements. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electronic-str...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electronic-str...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 8
Noble gas configuration (old, low volume)
Play Video
Noble gas configuration (old, low volume)
How to write electron configurations for atoms and monatomic ions using noble gas configuration

Chemistry on Khan Academy:
Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.

About Khan Academy:
Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.



Subscribe to KhanAcademy:
http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacad...
Lecture 9
Noble gas configuration | Electronic structure of atoms | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Noble gas configuration | Electronic structure of atoms | Chemistry | Khan Academy
How to write electron configurations for atoms and monatomic ions using noble gas configuration.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electronic-str...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/electronic-str...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 10
Valence Electrons
Play Video
Valence Electrons
Looking at valence electrons to figure out reactivity
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=1TZA171yxY4
Lecture 11
Groups of the Periodic Table
Play Video
Groups of the Periodic Table
Properties of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metals. Halogens and noble gases.
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=LDHg7Vgzses
Lecture 12
Periodic Table Trends: Ionization Energy
Play Video
Periodic Table Trends: Ionization Energy
What an ion is. Using the periodic table to understand how difficult it is to ionize an atom.
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=ywqg9PorTAw
Lecture 13
Other Periodic Table Trends
Play Video
Other Periodic Table Trends
Electronegativity, metallic nature and atomic radius.
Lecture 14
Ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds | Chemical bonds | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds | Chemical bonds | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Introduction to ionic, covalent, polar covalent and metallic bonds.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/periodic-table...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 15
Molecular and Empirical Formulas
Play Video
Molecular and Empirical Formulas
Introduction to molecular and empirical formulas. Calculating molecular mass.
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=gfBcM3uvWfs
Lecture 16
The mole and Avogadro's number | Atoms, compounds, and ions | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
The mole and Avogadro's number | Atoms, compounds, and ions | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Introduction to the idea of a mole as a number (vs. an animal).

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/atomic-structu...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/atomic-structu...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 17
Formula from Mass Composition
Play Video
Formula from Mass Composition
Figuring out the empirical formula from a molecules mass composition
Lecture 18
Another mass composition problem | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Another mass composition problem | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Another exercise converting a mass composition to an empirical formula. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 19
Balancing Chemical Equations
Play Video
Balancing Chemical Equations
The art of balancing equations in chemistry!
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=RnGu3xO2h74
Lecture 20
Stoichiometry | Chemical reactions and stoichiometry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Stoichiometry | Chemical reactions and stoichiometry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Introduction to stoichiometry. Using the balanced reaction to find molar ratios. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 21
Stoichiometry: Limiting reagent | Chemical reactions and stoichiometry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Stoichiometry: Limiting reagent | Chemical reactions and stoichiometry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Stoichiometry problem where we find the limiting reagent and calculate grams of product formed. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 22
Ideal gas equation: PV = nRT | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Ideal gas equation: PV = nRT | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Intuition behind the ideal gas equation: PV=nRT. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 23
Ideal gas equation example 1 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Ideal gas equation example 1 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Figuring out the number of moles of gas we have using the ideal gas equation: PV=nRT. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 24
Ideal gas equation example 2 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Ideal gas equation example 2 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
PV/T is a constant. Figuring out the volume of an ideal gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 25
Ideal gas equation example 3 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Ideal gas equation example 3 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Figuring out the mass of Oxygen we have at a given P, V, and T, and why we need to check the units of R. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 26
Ideal gas equation example 4 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Ideal gas equation example 4 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Figuring out the molar mass of a mystery molecule at STP. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 27
Introduction to partial pressure | Gases and kinetic molecular theory | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Introduction to partial pressure | Gases and kinetic molecular theory | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Definition of partial pressure and Dalton's law of partial pressure. Example of calculating partial pressure of a gas in a mixture from the total pressure and partial pressure of the other gases in the mixture.

Chemistry on Khan Academy:
Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.

About Khan Academy:
Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content.



Subscribe to KhanAcademy:
http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacad...
Lecture 28
Partial pressure example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Partial pressure example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Figuring out the partial pressures of various gases in a container given the mass percent composition. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 29
States of matter | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
States of matter | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Introduction to the states or phases of matter.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 30
States of matter follow-up | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
States of matter follow-up | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
More on plasma and hydrogen bonds.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 31
Specific heat, heat of fusion and vaporization example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Specific heat, heat of fusion and vaporization example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Specific heat and phase changes: Calculating how much heat is needed to convert 200 g of ice at -10 degrees C to 110 degree steam.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 32
Chilling water problem | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Chilling water problem | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
How much ice at -10 degrees C is necessary to get 500 g of water down to 0 degrees C?

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 33
Phase diagrams | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Phase diagrams | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Understanding and interpreting phase diagrams

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 34
Van der Waals forces | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Van der Waals forces | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Van der Waals forces: London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 35
Covalent networks, metallic crystals, and ionic crystals | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Covalent networks, metallic crystals, and ionic crystals | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Covalent networks, metallic crystals, and ionic crystals: Some of the strongest molecular structures.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-bonds...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 36
Vapor pressure | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Vapor pressure | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Vapor pressure, volatility, and evaporation.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 37
Suspensions, colloids and solutions | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Suspensions, colloids and solutions | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Suspensions, colloids and solutions. The difference between molarity and molality.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 38
Solubility and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Solubility and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Solubility of salt and gas solutes in liquid solvent.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 39
Boiling point elevation and freezing point depression | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Boiling point elevation and freezing point depression | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Raising or lowering the boiling or freezing point of a solution by adding solute.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 40
Introduction to kinetics | Energy and enzymes | Biology | Khan Academy
Play Video
Introduction to kinetics | Energy and enzymes | Biology | Khan Academy
Kinetics, activation energy, activated complex and catalysts.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/energy-and-enzym...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/energy-and-enzym...

Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course.





Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub...
Lecture 41
Reactions in equilibrium | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Reactions in equilibrium | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Equilibrium reactions and constants. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 42
Group trend for ionization energy | Periodic table | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Group trend for ionization energy | Periodic table | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Explaining trend in ionization energy down a group using concepts of nuclear charge, electron shielding, and distance of electrons from nucleus. Created by Jay.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/periodic-table...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/periodic-table...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 43
Keq intuition | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Keq intuition | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
A probabilistic look at how molecules react to develop the intuition behind the equilibrium constant formula. Not necessary to keep progressing through chemistry. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 44
Keq derivation intuition | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Keq derivation intuition | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
A more concrete attempt at showing how the probabilities of molecules reacting is related to their concentration. Not necessary to keep progressing through chemistry. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 45
Heterogeneous equilibrium | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Heterogeneous equilibrium | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Ignoring the solvent or the solid state molecules when calculating the equilibrium constant. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 46
Le Chatelier's principle | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Le Chatelier's principle | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
How Le Chatelier's Principle predicts changes in concentration when "stressing" reactions at equilibrium. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 47
Introduction to pH, pOH, and pKw
Play Video
Introduction to pH, pOH, and pKw
Autoionization of water into hydronium and hydroxide ions. pH, pOH, and pKa.
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=2q4vSKwaBtw
Lecture 48
Acid Base Introduction
Play Video
Acid Base Introduction
Arrhenius, Bronsted Lowry, and Lewis Acids and Bases.
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=vShCnTY1-T0
Lecture 49
pH, pOH of strong acids and bases | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
pH, pOH of strong acids and bases | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Deriving the relationship between pKw, pH, and pOH. Calculating the pH or pOH of strong acids and bases. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-base...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-base...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 50
pH of a Weak Acid
Play Video
pH of a Weak Acid
Calculating the pH of a weak acid
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=dencuBNp_Ck
Lecture 51
pH of a Weak Base
Play Video
pH of a Weak Base
pH of .2 M of NH3 (weak base).
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=gDJtOIxDu78
Lecture 52
Conjugate acids and bases
Play Video
Conjugate acids and bases
Introduction to conjugate acids and bases. Created by Sal Khan.

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 53
pKa and pKb relationship | Acids and bases | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
pKa and pKb relationship | Acids and bases | Chemistry | Khan Academy
The Ka and Kb relationship and pKa and pKb relationship between conjugate acids and bases. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-base...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-base...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 54
Buffers and Henderson-Hasselbalch | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Buffers and Henderson-Hasselbalch | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Getting an intuitive understanding of buffers using le Chatelier's principle. Derivation of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 55
Strong Acid Titration
Play Video
Strong Acid Titration
Strong acid titration and equivalence point
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=299o6c-Fkz4
Lecture 56
Buffer capacity | Buffers, titrations, and solubility equilibria | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Buffer capacity | Buffers, titrations, and solubility equilibria | Chemistry | Khan Academy
The definition of buffer capacity, and an example showing why it depends on the absolute concentrations of the conjugate acid and base.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 57
Weak Acid Titration
Play Video
Weak Acid Titration
Equivalence point when titrating a weak acid
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=gbpc_JBG1F0
Lecture 58
Image Not Available
Play Video
Private video
This video is private.
Lecture 59
Titration roundup | Buffers, titrations, and solubility equilibria | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Titration roundup | Buffers, titrations, and solubility equilibria | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Making sure you fully understand titration curves by comparing the initial pH and pH at equivalence point for different types. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 60
Introduction to Oxidation States
Play Video
Introduction to Oxidation States
Oxidation and reduction. Oxidation states.
Lecture 61
More on Oxidation States
Play Video
More on Oxidation States
More practice calculating oxidation states
Lecture 62
Hydrogen Peroxide Correction
Play Video
Hydrogen Peroxide Correction
Correcting an error in the last video regarding hydrogen peroxide.
Lecture 63
Redox Reactions
Play Video
Redox Reactions
Oxidation reduction (or redox) reactions
Lecture 64
Galvanic Cells
Play Video
Galvanic Cells
Redox reactions to drive Galvanic Cells.
Lecture 65
Types of decay | Nuclear chemistry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Types of decay | Nuclear chemistry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Alpha, Beta, Gamma Decay and Positron Emission

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 66
Half-life and carbon dating | Nuclear chemistry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Half-life and carbon dating | Nuclear chemistry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Carbon dating is a real-life example of a first-order reaction. This video explains half-life in the context of radioactive decay.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 67
Exponential decay formula proof (can skip, involves calculus) | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Exponential decay formula proof (can skip, involves calculus) | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Showing that N(t)=Ne^(-kt) describes the amount of a radioactive substance we have at time T. For students with background in Calculus. Not necessary for intro chemistry class.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 68
Introduction to exponential decay | Nuclear chemistry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Introduction to exponential decay | Nuclear chemistry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Introduction to Exponential Decay. Using the exponential decay formula to calculate k, calculating the mass of carbon-14 remaining after a given time, and calculating the time it takes to have a specific mass remaining .

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 69
More exponential decay examples | Nuclear chemistry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
More exponential decay examples | Nuclear chemistry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
A few more examples of exponential decay. Practice calculating k from half-life, and calculating initial mass.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 70
Macrostates and microstates | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Macrostates and microstates | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
The difference between macrostates and microstates. Thermodynamic equilibrium. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/s...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 71
Quasistatic and reversible processes | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Quasistatic and reversible processes | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Using theoretically quasi-static and/or reversible processes to stay pretty much at equilibrium. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 72
First law of thermodynamics / internal energy | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
First law of thermodynamics / internal energy | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
First law of thermodynamic and internal energy. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 73
More on internal energy | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
More on internal energy | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Getting more intuition of internal energy, heat, and work. Examples of using the first law to calculate work. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 74
Work from expansion | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Work from expansion | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
How a system can do work by expanding. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 75
PV-diagrams and expansion work | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
PV-diagrams and expansion work | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Why work from expansion is the area under the curve of a PV-diagram. Why heat is not a state function and internal energy is a state function. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 76
Proof: U = (3/2)PV or U = (3/2)nRT | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Proof: U = (3/2)PV or U = (3/2)nRT | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Conceptual proof that the internal energy of an ideal gas system is 3/2 PV. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 77
Work done by isothermic process | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Work done by isothermic process | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Isothermic and adiabatic processes. Calculating the work done by an isothermic process and seeing that it is the same as the heat added. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 78
Carnot cycle and Carnot engine | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Carnot cycle and Carnot engine | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Introduction to the Carnot cycle and Carnot heat engine. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 79
Proof: Volume ratios in a carnot cycle | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Proof: Volume ratios in a carnot cycle | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Proof of the volume ratios in a Carnot cycle. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 80
Proof: S (or entropy) is a valid state variable | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Proof: S (or entropy) is a valid state variable | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Proof that S (or entropy) is a valid state variable. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 81
Thermodynamic entropy definition clarification | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Thermodynamic entropy definition clarification | Physics | Khan Academy
Clarifying that the thermodynamic definition of Entropy requires a reversible system. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 82
Reconciling thermodynamic and state definitions of entropy | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Reconciling thermodynamic and state definitions of entropy | Physics | Khan Academy
Long video explaining why entropy is a measure of the number of states a system can take on (mathy, but mind-blowing). Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 83
Entropy intuition | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Entropy intuition | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Introduces second law of thermodynamics. A discussion of entropy change in terms of heat and microstates . Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 84
Maxwell's demon | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Maxwell's demon | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Maxwell's Demon: A thought experiment that seems to defy the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 85
More on entropy | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
More on entropy | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Distinguishing between microstates and macro states. How entropy S is defined for a system and not for a specific microstate. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 86
Efficiency of a Carnot engine | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Efficiency of a Carnot engine | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Definition of efficiency for a heat engine. Efficiency of a Carnot Engine. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 87
Carnot efficiency 2: Reversing the cycle | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Carnot efficiency 2: Reversing the cycle | Thermodynamics | Physics | Khan Academy
Seeing how we can scale and or reverse a Carnot Engine (to make a refrigerator). Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 88
Carnot efficiency 3: Proving that it is the most efficient | Physics | Khan Academy
Play Video
Carnot efficiency 3: Proving that it is the most efficient | Physics | Khan Academy
Proving that a Carnot Engine is the most efficient engine. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/electric-charge-...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/physics/thermodynamics/l...

Physics on Khan Academy: Physics is the study of the basic principles that govern the physical world around us. We'll start by looking at motion itself. Then, we'll learn about forces, momentum, energy, and other concepts in lots of different physical situations. To get the most out of physics, you'll need a solid understanding of algebra and a basic understanding of trigonometry.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Physics channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0oGarQW2lE5PxhGoQAKV7Q?sub...
Lecture 89
Enthalpy | Thermodynamics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Enthalpy | Thermodynamics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Understanding why enthalpy can be viewed as "heat content" in a constant pressure system. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 90
Heat of formation | Thermodynamics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Heat of formation | Thermodynamics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Standard heat of formation or standard enthalpy change of formation. How heats of formation are calculated. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 91
Hess's law and reaction enthalpy change | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Hess's law and reaction enthalpy change | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Using Hess's Law and standard heats of formation to determine the enthalpy change for reactions. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 92
Gibbs free energy and spontaneity | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Gibbs free energy and spontaneity | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Intuition behind why spontaneity is driven by enthalpy, entropy and temperature. Introduction to Gibbs free energy. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 93
Gibbs free energy example | Thermodynamics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Gibbs free energy example | Thermodynamics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Determining if a reaction is spontaneous by calculating the change in Gibbs free energy. Also calculates the change in entropy using table of standard entropies. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 94
More rigorous Gibbs free energy / spontaneity relationship | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
More rigorous Gibbs free energy / spontaneity relationship | Chemistry | Khan Academy
More formal understanding of why a negative change in Gibbs Free Energy implies a spontaneous, irreversible reaction. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 95
A look at a seductive but wrong Gibbs/spontaneity proof | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
A look at a seductive but wrong Gibbs/spontaneity proof | Chemistry | Khan Academy
A look at why the "proof" of the relation between changes in Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity is wrong in many textbooks. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 96
Stoichiometry example problem 1 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Stoichiometry example problem 1 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Figuring out grams of reactants and product produced from reaction of phosphorous and chlorine. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 97
Stoichiometry example problem 2 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Stoichiometry example problem 2 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Calculating mass of oxygen needed and grams of product formed from the combustion of 25.0 g of glucose. Created by Sal Khan.

Practice this yourself on Khan Academy right now: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 98
Limiting reactant example problem 1 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Limiting reactant example problem 1 | Chemistry | Khan Academy
A limiting reagent problem to calculate mass of product and mass of excess reactant leftover after reaction. Created by Sal Khan.

Practice this yourself on Khan Academy right now: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-react...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 99
Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry
Play Video
Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry
Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=FycJ8X67xEU
Lecture 100
Example of Finding Reactant Empirical Formula
Play Video
Example of Finding Reactant Empirical Formula
Example of Finding Reactant Empirical Formula
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=66ziUq6vRko
Lecture 101
Stoichiometry of a Reaction in Solution
Play Video
Stoichiometry of a Reaction in Solution
Stoichiometry of a Reaction in Solution
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=EKZSwjVR594
Lecture 102
Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution
Play Video
Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution
Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=_qrQKBB2jt8
Lecture 103
Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition
Play Video
Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition
Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition. Example 2.9 from Kotz Chemistry book
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=_H009sTvYE0
Lecture 104
Acid base titration example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Acid base titration example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Using acid-base titration to find mass of oxalic acid, a weak acid. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 105
Spectrophotometry introduction | Kinetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Spectrophotometry introduction | Kinetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Spectrophotometry, transmittance, absorbance and the Beer-Lambert Law. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 106
Spectrophotometry example | Kinetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Spectrophotometry example | Kinetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Spectrophotometry Example - determining concentration based on absorbance. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/nuclear-chemis...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 107
Hess's law example | Thermodynamics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Hess's law example | Thermodynamics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Hess's law example. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 108
Vapor pressure example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Vapor pressure example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Vapor pressure example using the ideal gas law. Created by Sal Khan.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/gases-and-kine...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 109
Change of state example | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Change of state example | States of matter and intermolecular forces | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Specific heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization example: calculating how much energy it takes to vaporize 1.00 kg of ethanol starting from 20 degrees C.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/states-of-matt...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 110
Small x approximation for small Kc | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Small x approximation for small Kc | Chemistry | Khan Academy
When the small x approximation is useful for solving equilibrium problems, and an example using the small x approximation when Kc is small.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 111
Small x approximation for large Kc | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Small x approximation for large Kc | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Guidelines and worked examples for using the small x approximation to solve equilibrium problems with large Kc values.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 112
pH and pKa relationship for buffers | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
pH and pKa relationship for buffers | Chemistry | Khan Academy
How the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation can be used to look at the ratio of conjugate acid and base using relationship between buffer pH and pKa.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 113
2015 AP chemistry free response 5a
Play Video
2015 AP chemistry free response 5a
Finding the order of reaction for kinetics of bleaching food coloring. An alternative method of solving 2015 AP Chemistry free response 5a.
Lecture 114
AP Chemistry multiple choice sample: Boiling points
Play Video
AP Chemistry multiple choice sample: Boiling points
Comparing the boiling point of nonane and 2,3,4-trifluoropentane. A sample multiple choice problem from the 2014 AP course description.
Lecture 115
Rate constant k from half-life example | Knetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Rate constant k from half-life example | Knetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Example problem showing how to find the rate constant k from the half-life of a first order reaction.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 116
Ways to get a buffer solution | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Ways to get a buffer solution | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Describes the two main situations where you get a buffer: making a buffer for a specific pH by combining a weak acid and a salt containing the conjugate base, and using a neutralization reaction by combining a weak acid and a strong base.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acid-base-equi...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 117
Comparing Q vs K example | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Comparing Q vs K example | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
A worked example using reaction quotient Q to predict how concentrations will shift so the reaction can get to equilibrium.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/acids-and-base...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chemical-equil...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 118
Finding units of rate constant k | Knetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Finding units of rate constant k | Knetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
How to find the units for the rate constant k for a zero, first, or second order reaction.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 119
Calculating internal energy and work example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Calculating internal energy and work example | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Worked example calculating the change in internal energy for a gas using the first law of thermodynamics.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 120
Ionic bonds and Coulombs law
Play Video
Ionic bonds and Coulombs law
Introduction to how the strength of ionic bonds is related to Coulomb's law. Example of using Coulomb's law to explain differences in melting points of ionic compounds.
Lecture 121
Bond enthalpy and enthalpy of reaction | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Bond enthalpy and enthalpy of reaction | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Introduction to bond enthalpy, and how to use bond enthalpies to calculate enthalpy of reaction.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/thermodynamics...

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 122
Introduction to reaction quotient Qc | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Introduction to reaction quotient Qc | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Introduction to the reaction quotient Qc, and how to use the reaction quotient to predict how the reaction concentrations will change.

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.





Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub...
Lecture 123
Le Chatelier's principle: Worked example | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Le Chatelier's principle: Worked example | Chemical equilibrium | Chemistry | Khan Academy
A worked example using Le Chatelier's principle to predict how concentrations will shift for different perturbations. Example includes changes in reaction vessel volume, changing amount of solid product, adding inert gas, and adding a catalyst.

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.
Lecture 124
Conjugate acid-base pairs | Acids and bases | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Play Video
Conjugate acid-base pairs | Acids and bases | Chemistry | Khan Academy
Introduction to conjugate acid-base pairs. Definition and examples of conjugate acid-base pairs.

Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful.