Richard Battin SB '45, Ph.D. '51 Richard Battin was responsible for creating the guidance and navigation concepts for the Apollo spacecraft's on-board flight computers. He was an associate director of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory when it was selected by NASA in 1961 to develop the spacecraft's guidance and navigation system. Subsequently, he was director of mission development for the MIT Apollo program. He organized and led a large team of analysts and computer specialists charged with providing the navigation, guidance, and control software for each of the Apollo flights. Battin is an Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, a Fellow of the American Astronautical Society, a Member of the National Academy of Engineering, and a Member of the International Academy of Astronautics. Battin received an S.B. in Electrical Engineering from MIT in 1945, and a Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics, also from MIT, in 1951.