Blue Planet: Introduction to Oceanography

Video Lectures

Displaying all 27 video lectures.
Lecture 1
Lecture 1: Introduction to Ocean Interactions
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Lecture 1: Introduction to Ocean Interactions

September 25, 2009

Lecture 1: Prof Edwin Schauble gives an introduction to ocean interactions, course description, prerequisites, units of measure

Lecture Notes: Lecture 1: Introduction, SI units

Lecture 2
Lecture 2: Earth and the origins of our oceans
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Lecture 2: Earth and the origins of our oceans
September 28, 2009

Professor Edwin Schauble presents units and conversion operations, scientific notation, planetary bodies and its oceans, origins of Earth's water, structure of Earth and mechanical layers of Earth

Lecture Notes: Lecture 2: Scientific notation, origin of the ocean

Lecture 3
Lecture 3: The shape of the ocean floor
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Lecture 3: The shape of the ocean floor

September 30, 2009

Professor Edwin Schauble discusses the mechanical layers of Earth, the mantle, Earth's elevations and Ocean Basins, continental crust, Buoyancy, isostatic balance, elevation vs. oceans, abyssal hills and seamounts, continental margins, continental shelf, continental rise, submarine canyons, the unconfined tank

Lecture Notes: Lecture 3: Structure of the Earth, shape of the oceans

Lecture 4
Lecture 4: Shape of the ocean
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Lecture 4: Shape of the ocean

October 2, 2009

Edwin Schauble presents the big picture of the bimodal distribution, isostatic balance, morphology of the ocean, satellite radar mapping (gravity), active margins, deep-sea trenches, Southern California margin, Southern California borderian, deep ocean basins, mid-ocean ridge and isostasy system, scientific method, Wegener's continental jigsaw puzzle, continental drift

Lecture Notes: Lecture 4: More shape of the oceans

Lecture 5
Lecture 5: Earth's morphology, magnetism and dating
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Lecture 5: Earth's morphology, magnetism and dating

October 5, 2009

Edwin Schauble talks about isostatic balance, morphology of oceans, scientific method, seismology, earthquakes and trenches, Earth's magnetic field, dating rocks with magnetism, the oceanic "tape recorder", age of the Ocean Floor, certainty and scientific method

Lecture Notes: Lecture 5: Plate tectonics 1

Lecture 6
Lecture 6: Plate Tectonics
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Lecture 6: Plate Tectonics

October 7, 2009

Edwin Schauble explains earthquakes regions and deep-ocean trenchs, seafloor spreading, magnetic reversal stripes, age of earth, plate tectonics, largest plates, lithospheric recycling, convection, plate boundaries, divergent boundaries, age of the ocean floor, convergent boundaries, Ocean-Ocean Convergence Island Arcs, Ocean-Continent Convergence, Continent -Continent Convergence

Lecture 7
Lecture 7: Plate Tectonics 4
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Lecture 7: Plate Tectonics 4
October 12, 2009

Continent-Continent Convergence
• India-Asia collision
• Himalayas
• Continental crust is too buoyant to
subduct, crumples and thickens at
the surface.
• Extra-thick continental crust ---> BIG mountains.

Transform Boundaries
Transforms and seismicity

Hotspots & Mantle Plumes
• Stationary volcanic sources in mantle
• Ocean Crust ~ 10% generated at hotspots
• Heat transfer: ~10-30% of mantle heat flux
• Hotspot Island Chains

Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain Traces Past Plate Motion
Tectonic Evolution of Ocean Basins
Oceanic life cycles (Wilson Cycle): ~200-500 million years to open and close
Paleogeographic reconstruction
Regional & Local Tectonics of California
Pacific Plate Evolution
Easternmost Pacific Plate Evolution
Southern CA Evolution
Coast Ranges & Central Valley
The Sierra Nevada
The San Andreas isn’t the only fault in Southern California

Lecture Notes: Lecture 7: Plate tectonics 4

Lecture 8
Lecture 8: California tectonics, marine sediments
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Lecture 8: California tectonics, marine sediments
October 12, 2009

Paleogeographic reconstruction
Regional & Local Tectonics of California
Pacific Plate Evolution
Easternmost Pacific Plate Evolution
Southern CA Evolution
Coast Ranges & Central Valley
The Sierra Nevada
Coast Ranges (scraped off the Farallon Plate)
San Andreas and other Faults

MARINE SEDIMENTS
Sedimentation: Big Picture
Global Distribution & Thickness of Marine Sedimentary Layers
Grain Size Sediment Classification
Grain Size Dependent Transport
Genetic Classification of Sediments
• Terrigenous: from continents
• Biogenous: from biological sources
• Hydrogenous: seawater precipitates
• Sometimes referred to as “authigenic” -- means formed in place
• Cosmogenous: extraterrestrial sources
Terrigenous Sediment Sources

Lecture Notes: Lecture 8: California tectonics, marine sediment
Lecture 9
Lecture 9: Marine sediments
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Lecture 9: Marine sediments
October 14, 2009

Global Distribution & Thickness of Marine Sedimentary Layers
Grain Size Sediment Classification
Grain Size Dependent Transport
Genetic Classification of Sediments
• Terrigenous: from continents
• Biogenous: from biological sources
• Hydrogenous: seawater precipitates
• Sometimes referred to as “authigenic” -- means formed in place
• Cosmogenous: extraterrestrial sources

Terrigenous Sediment Sources
Fluvial Terrigenous Sediments
Bengal Fan – World’s largest pile of mud?
Biogenous Sediments
Calcareous (CaCO3) Plankton: Foraminifera and Coccolithophores
Siliceous (SiO2) Plankton: Diatoms and Radiolaria
Coccolith (phytoplankton)
Biogenic Oozes
Carbonate Compensation Depth, CCD
Calcite Compensation Depth, CCD
Siliceous Oozes
Abyssal Clays
Hydrogenous Sedimentary Deposits
Cosmogenic Sediments
K-T boundary in sediment

Lecture Notes: Lecture 9: Marine sediments

Lecture 10
Lecture 10: Sediments and Seawater
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Lecture 10: Sediments and Seawater
October 16, 2009

Cosmogenic Sediments
K-T boundary in sediment
Rate of sediment addition
Sediment, biology and seafloor age
Global Distribution of Sediments
Atoms, Ions and What kind of ions will an element form
Chemical Bonds
Hydrogen bonding
Heat Capacity
Physical States of Matter
Relationship between Heat and Temperature for H2O

Lecture Notes: Lecture 11: Sediments, seawater

Lecture 11
Lecture 11: Sediments and Seawater
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Lecture 11: Sediments and Seawater
October 19, 2009

Chemical Bonds
Hydrogen bonding
Heat Capacity
Physical States of Matter
Relationship between Heat and Temperature for H2O
Density of Pure Water
Density & Structure of Ice
Thermal Convection in Water
Chemical Properties of Seawater
Water: Universal solvent (almost)
Water: great at dissolving stuff
Salinity
Sources of Dissolved Salts
Major Constituents: Most abundant dissolved elements & molecules
Chemical Residence Times
Steady-State Assumption

Lecture Notes: Lecture 11: Sediments, seawater
Lecture 12
Lecture 12: Seawater
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Lecture 12: Seawater
October 21, 2009

Major Constituents: Most abundant dissolved elements & molecules
Chemical Residence Times
Steady-State Assumption
Trace Elements
What controls the density of Seawater?
Effects of Temperature & Salinity
Physical Structure of the Oceans
Ocean Water - Layered by density: The Mixed Layer, The Pycnocline and The Deep Layer
Thermocline
Halocline
Pycnocline
Dissolved Gases in the Ocean
Oxygen (O2)
Carbon Dioxide

Lecture Notes: Lecture 12: Seawater 2 and Seawater 3.

Lecture 13
Lecture 13: Seawater, pH and Wind
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Lecture 13: Seawater, pH and Wind
October 26, 2009

Effects of Temperature & Salinity
Physical Structure of the Oceans
Ocean Water - Layered by density: The Mixed Layer, The Pycnocline and The Deep Layer
Thermocline
Halocline
Pycnocline
Dissolved Gases in the Ocean
Oxygen (O2)
Carbon Dioxide
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Respiration
Biological Nutrients
O2 and CO2 vs. Depth
Acid-Base Balance
pH Scale
The Carbonate Buffer System
The CO2 system and carbonate
Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling
Composition of the Atmosphere
Density of AirL

Lecture Notes: Lecture 13: Seawater and pH and wind.

Lecture 14
Lecture 14: Seawater, pH and Wind
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Lecture 14: Seawater, pH and Wind
October 28, 2009

Composition of the Atmosphere
Density of Air
Density & temperature of Air
Expanding Air Cools and Condenses
Solar Heating of the Earth
Solar Heating & the Seasons
Redistribution of Solar Heat Energy
Atmospheric Circulation Without Rotation
Actual Atmospheric Circulation
Lab Coriolis Movies
Coriolis Effect Movies
The Coriolis Effect on Earth
The Coriolis Effect
Why do storms (including hurricanes and cyclones) go backwards?

Lecture Notes: Lecture 14: pH and wind and Wind 2
Lecture 15
Lecture 15: Wind, Currents
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Lecture 15: Wind, Currents
October 30, 2009

Atmospheric Circulation Without Rotation
Actual Atmospheric Circulation
Lab Coriolis Movies
Coriolis Effect Movies
The Coriolis Effect on Earth
The Coriolis Effect
Why do storms (including hurricanes and cyclones) go backwards?
Atmospheric Circulation including Coriolis
Actual forecast of surface winds
Atmospheric Circulation including Coriolis
Local Meteorology of Southern California
Mediterranean Climate
Sea Breeze
Land Breeze
Marine Layer
Santa Ana Winds

Lecture Notes: Lecture 15: Wind 2 and Wind 3, Current
Lecture 16
Lecture 16: Currents and Winds
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Lecture 16: Currents and Winds
November 2, 2009

Currents in the Ocean
Surface Currents
Wind-Driven Currents
Pressure-Driven Currents
North Atlantic Surface Currents
Coriolis & currents
Ekman Spiral
Winds
Drag from the wind on surface water
Wind-dragged & Basin-Edge Currents
Final result: a loop of current, a Gyre
Coriolis “Geostrophic” Response
Ocean Basin Circulation

Major Current Systems
1. North Atlantic gyre
2. South Atlantic gyre
3. North Pacific gyre
4. South Pacific gyre
5. Indian Ocean gyre
6. Antarctic Circumpolar Current

Currents on each edge of a Gyre have names.
Transverse Currents
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Current flow rate in the Gulf Stream

Lecture Notes: Wind 3, Current. and Current.

Lecture 17
Lecture 17: Currents
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Lecture 17: Currents
November 4, 2009

Major Current Systems
1. North Atlantic gyre
2. South Atlantic gyre
3. North Pacific gyre
4. South Pacific gyre
5. Indian Ocean gyre
6. Antarctic Circumpolar Current

Currents on each edge of a Gyre have names.
Transverse Currents
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Western Boundary Currents
Current flow rate in the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream time-lapse SST
Eastern Boundary Currents
North Atlantic Gyre Boundary Currents
Coriolis “Geostrophic” Response
Weird non-gyre currents: Equatorial Counter Currents
Upwelling of Deep Water
Importance of Upwelling
Sites & Causes of Upwelling
Equatorial Pacific Upwelling
Coastal Upwelling
Upwelling and Downwelling Flows
Deep Currents in the Ocean
Where does deep water come from?
Deep Water Formation
Water Mass Classifications
Atlantic Deep Circulation
Pacific
Global deep water ‘conveyor’
Waves

Lecture Notes: Lecture 17: Current ans Current2
Lecture 18
Lecture 18: Currents and Waves
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Lecture 18: Currents and Waves
November 6, 2009

Waves
The Anatomy of a Wave
The Dynamics of a Wave
Oscillation
Oscillation: Water depth matters
Deep vs. Shallow Water Waves
Ocean Waves
Tsunami
Ocean wave classification and “power”
Wind-Driven Ocean Waves
Wind-Seas and Swells
Wind Sea: wind & storm create and grow new waves
Swell: waves that have left their birthplace sorted by dispersion (longest move fastest)
Breaking Waves
Waves can’t transport energy as efficiently in shallow water

Lecture Notes: Lecture 18: Current2 and Waves
Lecture 19
Lecture 19: Breaking waves, tsunami & tides
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Lecture 19: Breaking waves, tsunami & tides
November 9, 2009

Waves can’t transport energy as efficiently in shallow water
When Do Waves Break?
Why Do Waves Break at the Shore?
Tsunami
Tsunami Locations
Tsunami crossing the Bay of Bengal
The Banda Aceh Tsunami
Detecting tsunami in the open ocean
TOPEX/Poseidon and Tsunami
How does a tsunami cause harm?
Tsunami waves come to shore
Is California at Risk?
Minimizing Tsunami Damage
Preventing Tsunami Damage
Tides
Earth-Moon-Sun System
Tides are caused by the gravity of the Moon and Sun acting on Earth and its ocean.
Phases of the Moon

Lecture Notes: Lecture 19: Waves and Tides
Lecture 20
Lecture 20: Tides, Marine Systems, Photosynthesis and Productivity
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Lecture 20: Tides, Marine Systems, Photosynthesis and Productivity
November 16, 2009

Tides
Earth-Moon-Sun System
Tides are caused by the gravity of the Moon and Sun acting on Earth and its ocean.
Phases of the Moon
The Big Picture 3: Bulges
The Moon and Sun both influence tides
Effect of Sun & Moon Together
Why is the moon’s effect on the tide greater than the sun’s?
Tidal Forces: Sun vs. Moon
Equilibrium Theory of the Tides
Tides in narrow, tapering bays
Bay of Fundy tides
CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES FOR MARINE ORGANISMS
Genetic classification: Three Domains of Life
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukaryota
What does it eat?
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis Reaction
Respiration

Lecture Notes: Lecture 20: Tides and Marine life
Lecture 21
Lecture 21: Photosynthesis, Respiration, Productivity, Habitats & Plankton
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Lecture 21: Photosynthesis, Respiration, Productivity, Habitats & Plankton
November 18, 2009

Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis Reaction
Respiration
Respiration Reaction
PRIMARY PRODUCTION
How can we measure productivity?
Colorimetry compared with “weighing”
Productivity from SeaWiFS
Genetic classification: Three Domains of Life
What does it eat?
Ocean Habitats
Habitat
Light zones
Photic Zone
Plankton
Majority of Plankton are Small
Sampling Plankton
Phytoplankton
Diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Red Tides

Lecture Notes: Lecture 21: Marine life and Light and plankton
Lecture 22
Lecture 22: Phytoplankton, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, Coccolithophores, Radiolaria & Ostracods
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Lecture 22: Phytoplankton, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, Coccolithophores, Radiolaria & Ostracods
November 20, 2009

Plankton
Majority of Plankton are Small
Sampling Plankton
Phytoplankton
Diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Red Tides
Coccolithophores
Zooplankton
Foraminifera
Radiolaria
Radiolaria Sedimentary Fossils
Ostracods

Lecture Notes: Lecture 22: Light and plankton and Plankton 2
Lecture 23
Lecture 23: Ostracods, Copepod, Picoplankton, Migrating Plankton, Multicellular life, Origin of Animals, Nekton
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Lecture 23: Ostracods, Copepod, Picoplankton, Migrating Plankton, Multicellular life, Origin of Animals, Nekton
November 23, 2009

Ostracods
Copepod
Copepod feeding motion
Reconstructed feeding currents
Picoplankton
Diurnal Migrating Plankton
Polar Seasonal Vertical Migration
Planktonic Patchiness
Multicellular life
Origin of Animals
What kinds of Animals exist?
Nekton
Cephalopods
Fish
Jawless Fish (Class Agnatha)
Sharks and Rays
Sand Tiger Shark
Shark Attacks

Bony Fish
Fish Body Morphology
Coloration
Counter-Shading: a type of crypsis
Benthos
Habitats
Nutrition

Lecture Notes: Lecture 23: Plankton 2 and Nekton
Lecture 24
Lecture 24: Nekton and Benthos
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Lecture 24: Nekton and Benthos
November 25, 2009

Bony Fish
Fish Body Morphology
Coloration
Counter-Shading: a type of crypsis
BENTHOS
Nutrition
Kelp Forest Ecosystems
Kelp Forest Ecosystem Dynamics
Kelp (& coral reef) geography
Coral Reef Communities
Coral Polyps
Anatomy of a coral polyp
Coral Reefs: ZOOXANTHELLAE
Geography of Coral Reefs
Geological evolution of Coral Reefs
Geology of Coral Reefs
Coral Reefs in Global Decline
Coral Reef Bleaching

Lecture Notes: Nekton and Benthos
Lecture 25
Lecture 25: Marine Resources
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Lecture 25: Marine Resources
November 30, 2009

Types of Marine Resources
Sustainability of Marine Resources
Oceanic Biological Resources
Oceanic & Aquatic Biological Resources
Global Commercial Harvest
Why such large large Peruvian/Chilean Harvests?
Fisheries Management
Overexploitation & collapse of fisheries
Mariculture
Salmon
Pacific Northwest Salmon Mariculture

Lecture Notes: Lecture 26: Marine resources
Lecture 26
Lecture 26: Climate Change
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Lecture 26: Climate Change
December 2, 2009

Definition of “Climate”
Regional and Global Climates are changing
Why is the climate changing?"
Understanding Past Climates"
Paleo-climate Evidence
Paleoclimate: Oceanic Proxies
Paleoclimate Oceanic Measurements
“Recent” Climate Measurements

Lecture Notes: Lecture 27: Climate change 1
Lecture 27
Lecture 27: Climate Change
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Lecture 27: Climate Change
December 4, 2009

“Recent” Climate Measurements
Present State of the Climate
Why is the Climate Warming?
Greenhouse Earth
Greenhouse Increase
Paleoclimate Quantification Methods
Greenhouse Gases vs. Climate
CO2-enhanced greenhouse
Climate Change & Feedback Mechanisms
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
Other Feedback Mechanisms
Paleoclimate: Oceanic Proxies
H2O(18) evaporates slightly less easily than H2O(16)
Recent Climate Measurements
The atmospheric greenhouse
Paleoclimate & greenhouse gases
Putting the feedbacks & forcings together
Global Warming Projections
Future Projections, Uncertainties
Roles of the Ocean in Future Climate
Possible Consequences
Effect on the ocean: sea level rise
Future sea level rise
Response

Lecture Notes: Lecture 27: Climate change 1 and Climate change 2