Philosophy and Critical Thinking

Video Lectures

Displaying all 24 video lectures.
Lecture 1
Issues, Claims, Arguments
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Issues, Claims, Arguments
In this lecture and discussion from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses several fundamental concepts and how they are connected with each other. He also points out some misconceptions common among students approaching this material for the first time.
Lecture 2
Arguments and non-Arguments
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Arguments and non-Arguments
In this lecture and discussion from his Fayetteville State University's Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses what sort of structure sets of claims must have in order to be arguments. He distinguishes arguments from other non-argument sets of claims, including narratives and explanations. Portions of President Barack Obama's 2011 State of the Union speech are used to provide examples for the class.
Lecture 3
Value Judgements
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Value Judgements
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking course, Dr. Sadler introduces, examines, and explains the concept of value judgements. He also distinguishes three different modalities of value judgements and provides examples of each.
Lecture 4
Complex Arguments, Unstated Premises
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Complex Arguments, Unstated Premises
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking course, Dr. Sadler discusses the structure of complex arguments, how "premise" and "conclusion" are relational terms, and how conclusions can function as premises. He also discusses unstated or implicit premises and conclusions and why we rely upon them.
Lecture 5
Deductive and Inductive Arguments with Implicit Premises
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Deductive and Inductive Arguments with Implicit Premises
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler brings together two previously introduced sets of concepts: distinctions between deductive and inductive arguments, and implicit or unstated premises. He discusses how inductive arguments involve general rules that admit of exceptions, and how deductive arguments involve universal rules.
Lecture 6
Deductive and Inductive Arguments 1
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Deductive and Inductive Arguments 1
In this video, Dr. Sadler introduces his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class to the concepts of Deductive and Inductive arguments. He gives them examples of good and bad arguments and uses stereotyping to provide examples of how bad arguments are developed and where their flaws lie. He also discusses Indicator words for these types of arguments, as well as for premises and conclusions.
Lecture 7
Deductive and Inductive Arguments 2
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Deductive and Inductive Arguments 2
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler introduces important distinctions between different classifications of deductive and inductive arguments, providing examples to illustrate concepts such as validity, strength, soundness and cogency of arguments.
Lecture 8
Deductive and Inductive Arguments 3
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Deductive and Inductive Arguments 3
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler returns thematically to the concept of argument forms, providing some examples, distinguishing content and form, and discussing how looking at the form can help students determine whether and argument is deductive or inductive.
Lecture 9
Fallacies of Composition and Divison
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Fallacies of Composition and Divison
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses and gives examples of the closely related fallacies of Composition and Division. He also discusses what characteristics make these fallacies, and instances when arguments which move from wholes to parts of vice versa are not fallacies.
Lecture 10
Information Sources
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Information Sources
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking classes, Dr. Sadler discusses some basic issues with information sources. He addresses why we need to be critical in our reliance on sources, why we should proportion belief to evidence, and examines some of the sources of our information. This is a preliminary introduction to the topic which will lead into further, more technically focused lectures.
Lecture 11
Experts and Appeal to Authority
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Experts and Appeal to Authority
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses why we have to rely on experts, what to look for in experts, and the Fallacy of Appeal to (False) Authority.
Lecture 12
Critical Thinking and Advertising
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Critical Thinking and Advertising
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses how advertising works, what perspective a critical thinker should adopt towards advertisements, the variety of things consumers are being asked to "buy", types of advertisements, and how advertisements are actually arguments.
Lecture 13
Rhetorical Devices 1
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Rhetorical Devices 1
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler introduces several rhetorical devices used to produce persuasion and to skew perceptions positively or negatively. He addresses euphemism, dysphemism, rhetorical definitions and explanations, stereotypes, and innuendo.
Lecture 14
Rhetorical Devices 2
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Rhetorical Devices 2
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler introduces several additional rhetorical devices used to produce persuasion and to skew perceptions positively or negatively. He addresses loaded questions, weasel words, downplayers, and the use of humor, satire, or sarcasm.
Lecture 15
Rhetorical Devices 3
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Rhetorical Devices 3
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler introduces several additional rhetorical devices used to produce persuasion and to skew perceptions positively or negatively. He addresses hyperbole, proof surrogates, and misleading analogies or comparisons.
Lecture 16
Fallacies 1
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Fallacies 1
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses fallacies falling under the broad rubric of Appeal to Emotion. He also discusses the nature of emotions, the role emotional intelligence plays, and outlines the structure of fallacious arguments appealing to emotions.
Lecture 17
Fallacies 2
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Fallacies 2
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses fallacies falling under the broad rubric of Appeal to Popularity, distinguishing the closely connected fallacies of appeal to popularity, appeal to common practice, and appeal to tradition. He provides a number of examples for his students.
Lecture 18
Fallacies 3
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Fallacies 3
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses two additional fallacious arguments: Two Wrongs Make a Right, and Red Herring. He provides examples for his students, and also discusses the variant of Red Herring termed Smoke Screen.
Lecture 19
Fallacies 4
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Fallacies 4
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses fallacious arguments that work by attacking opponents or their arguments: varieties of Ad Hominem, the Genetic Fallacy, and the Straw Man.
Lecture 20
Fallacies 5
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Fallacies 5
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses two additional fallacious arguments: False Dilemma and Slippery Slope. He treats both of them as valid but unsound arguments, i.e. arguments with a good structure but which contain at least one false premise, and gives a number of examples. He also discusses the Perfectionist Fallacy and the Line-Drawing Fallacy as sub-classes of False Dilemma.
Lecture 21
Fallacies 6
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Fallacies 6
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses two additional fallacious arguments: Appeal to Ignorance and Begging the Question. He discusses the associated concept of the burden of proof and provides examples of appeals to ignorance and begging the question.
Lecture 22
Inductive Arguments 1
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Inductive Arguments 1
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses inductive arguments, specifically the types termed inductive syllogism and enumerative induction. He provides a number of examples from everyday student life for both types, and discusses what conditions are required for these to be strong inductive arguments.
Lecture 23
Inductive Arguments 2
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Inductive Arguments 2
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses the form of inductive arguments typically called enumerative induction. He provides a number of examples from everyday student life, biology, product safety, and political polling and discusses what conditions are required for enumerative inductions to be strong inductive arguments.
Lecture 24
Inductive Arguments 3
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Inductive Arguments 3
In this lecture from his Fayetteville State University Critical Thinking class, Dr. Sadler discusses the form of inductive arguments typically called argument from analogy. He provides a number of examples from everyday student life, politics, marketing, and product recommendations, and discusses what conditions are required for arguments from analogy to be strong inductive arguments.