Introduction to Music by OpenBUCS

Video Lectures

Displaying all 91 video lectures.
Lecture 1
Introduction to Music
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Introduction to Music
Why take this course? What is the course about? What do you need to know before you start the class? What are the course goals? Meet the instructor.
Lecture 2
Course Navigation
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Course Navigation
Lecture 3
Beat
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Beat
Beat is the part of music that you respond to physically. Learn what the beat is and how to find it.

05 31 2013b 01 NEW
Lecture 4
Rhythm
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Rhythm
Rhythm is the movement of sound through time. Rhythm is made up of combinations of long and short sounds that work along with the beat of the music.

SNC 05 31 2013b 04
Lecture 5
Syncopation
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Syncopation
Many rhythms do unexpected things. When the rhythm changes to put a long sound in a place where you would normally expect a short sound, the result is syncopation. Listen for short-long-short patterns; they are usually syncopations.

06 03 2013 03
Lecture 6
Meter
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Meter
Meter is the way that beats are organized into groups. The two major organizations are duple meter (beats in groups of two) and triple (beats in groups of three). Almost all other meters are made up of combinations of these two meters. Learn to conduct the two meters as you listen to a variety of music from both popular and art music styles.

SNC 05 31 2013b 02
Lecture 7
Compound and Simple Meters
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Compound and Simple Meters
The beat is usually divided into either two or three parts. When the beat is divided in half, the meter is considered simple. When the beat is divided into three parts, the meter is called compound. A metric pattern of three beats, each divided into two parts, would be simple duple meter. A listener may perceive meter differently depending on whether they hear the larger beat or the subdivisions of that beat as the basis of the meter.

SN 06 03 2013 02
Lecture 8
Melody
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Melody
Melody adds pitch to the rhythm to create what we often call the "tune." Melody can be described in three ways: movement, range, and shape/contour.

06 03 2013 01
Lecture 9
Harmony
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Harmony
Harmony is what is left after we take out the melody. Harmony can move in the same rhythm as the melody, but on different pitches, or may have an entirely different rhythmic pattern. Harmony is generally made up of chords, or simultaneously-sounding groups of three or more pitches.

SN 06 03 2013 09
Lecture 10
Tonality
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Tonality
Both melody and harmony derive their pitches from the tonality, or key, of the piece. The two primary tonalities used in what we call Western music are major and minor. Different combinations of half-steps and whole-steps create scales, which are the basis for melodic and harmonic choices.

SN 06 03 2013 08
Lecture 11
Tempo
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Tempo
Tempo is the speed of the beat. Tempo is described as using a variety of terms, usually in Italian. Most of these terms are open o interpretation to a certain degree. The invention of the metronome around 1815 allowed composers to give more specific instructions about the tempo of a piece. To indicate a slowing of tempo, a composer might indicate ritard or rallentando. To indicate a speeding up of the tempo, the term accelerando is used.
Lecture 12
Dynamics
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Dynamics
Dynamics are what most people call "volume." It is the level of loudness of a piece of music. Like tempo, the terms that describe dynamics are in Italian and are open to interpretation. An increase in dynamic level is indicated by the term crescendo; decrescendo tells the performer to get softer.

06 03 2013 05
Lecture 13
Articulations
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Articulations
Every note in a piece of music can be performed in many different ways depending on how the musician articulates it. Notes that are connected to each other to create a smooth line are said to be legato. Notes that are slightly separated from one another are said to be staccato. The performer can also accent a note, placing a stronger emphasis on the beginning of the note.

06 03 2013 07
Lecture 14
Module 1 Review
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Module 1 Review
A review of concepts learned so far as found in the piece "Hungarian Dance No. 5" by Johannes Brahms.

06 03 2013 10
Lecture 15
Texture
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Texture
Texture refers to the way that multiple lines of music work together. The simplest type of texture is monophonic, where there is nothing but melody. The most common texture is homophonic, where a melodic line is accompanied by harmony parts that are not melodic. Polyphonic texture describes music where multiple melodies are happening simultaneously. The simplest form of polyphonic texture can be found in a round like "Row, Row, Row Your Boat."

06 03 2013 11
Lecture 16
Chinese Music
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Chinese Music
Chinese music is often in monophonic texture. The emphasis is more often on melody and timbre than on rhythm. It also uses a different type of tonality than most Western music.

08 01 2013 06
Lecture 17
AB and ABA Form
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AB and ABA Form
Form is the way that a piece of music is organized. The two simplest formal structures are AB and ABA. In AB form, there are two contrasting sections. In ABA form, the opening section (A) can be repeated exactly as it was in the beginning. More common, however, is a repetition of A that is modified in some way from the first presentation.

06 03 2013 12
Lecture 18
Rondo Form
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Rondo Form
In a rondo, one melodic section (A) recurs throughout the piece, with new material interspersed between iterations of the A section. The resulting form is something like ABACADA.

06 03 2013 13
Lecture 19
Theme and Variation Form
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Theme and Variation Form
Most works in this form take a familiar melody as the theme. The composer then varies that melody through use of augmentation (lengthening the notes), diminution (shortening notes), changing tonality (from major to minor or vice versa), changing meter, etc.

06 03 2013 14
Lecture 20
Timbre and Voice Types
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Timbre and Voice Types
Timbre is the characteristic tone quality of an instrument or voice. The six major voice ranges are soprano, mezzo soprano, alto or contralto, tenor, baritone and bass.

05 30 2013 01
Lecture 21
The Piano
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The Piano
Learn how a piano works and take a look at the inside of a piano.

06 03 2013 15
Lecture 22
The Harpsichord
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The Harpsichord
The harpsichord is a keyboard instrument that is a predecessor to the piano. See how it operates differently from the piano even though they look very much alike.

06 03 2013 16
Lecture 23
The Organ
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The Organ
The pipe organ is the largest of musical instruments. Join Dr. David Runner of Milligan College as he demonstrates the capabilities of the instrument.

07 02 2013 01
Lecture 24
String Instruments
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String Instruments
The string instruments are the most homogeneous family as they all have the same basic construction and create sound using the same principles. The violin, viola, cello, and string bass are shown, and harp is discussed.

06 03 2013 17
Lecture 25
Brass Instruments
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Brass Instruments
Learn how sound is produced on a brass instrument and how the overtone series allows for multiple pitches on a single fingering or slide position. The trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba are introduced.

SNC 05 29 2013 02
Lecture 26
Woodwind Instruments
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Woodwind Instruments
The woodwind instruments produce sound in three different ways. The flute and piccolo use a split column of air; clarinet and saxophone use a single reed; and oboe and bassoon use a double reed.

06 13 2013 01
Lecture 27
Australian Music
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Australian Music
The Australian aborigines use music in a variety of private and public ways. The didgeridoo is the best-known of the aboriginal instruments.

08 01 2013 01
Lecture 28
Percussion Instruments
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Percussion Instruments
The largest instrument family is percussion. The instruments are divided into two major categories: instruments with definite pitch, and instruments with indefinite pitch. Dr. Rande Sanderbeck demonstrates several instruments.

05 31 2013 01 NEW OpenBucs
Lecture 29
Ensembles
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Ensembles
Instruments and voices are organized into groups called ensembles. Explore large ensembles like the symphony orchestra and small groups like the string quartet.

SNC 05 31 2013b 03
Lecture 30
Style Periods
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Style Periods
The history of art music is divided into periods based on the style of music that was prominent during a particular time. In this brief introduction to the major style periods, portraits by visual artists of the same period are used to illustrate changes in musical style.

05 30 2013 05
Lecture 31
Instrumental Genres - Open BUCS
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Instrumental Genres - Open BUCS
A genre is a type of work; we use genres to distinguish between the vast array of instrumental and vocal works. Instrumental genres include the symphony, concerto, concerto grosso, suite, overture, string quartet, fugue, and fantasia.

05 30 2013 02
Lecture 32
Vocal Genres
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Vocal Genres
Vocal genres are discussed in chronological order beginning with Gregorian chant and the Catholic Mass. The madrigal and chorale lead us into the major vocal genres: cantata, oratorio, and opera, all of which come into being during the Baroque period. We close with a brief discussion of the art song, or Lied.

05 30 2013 03
Lecture 33
Keyboard Genres
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Keyboard Genres
Keyboards are often part of both instrumental and vocal genres, but some genres are primarily performed by keyboardists. These include the chorale prelude, prelude and fugue, waltz, minuet, polonaise, mazurka, polka and nocturne.

05 30 2013 04
Lecture 34
Talking Smart About Music
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Talking Smart About Music
Learn how to behave at an art music concert and how to "talk smart" about music when you are around more experienced audience members.

SNC 05 29 2013 01
Lecture 35
Early Music
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Early Music
While music from before the 1600s is not often performed in concert, it is important to know something about it because of its influence on later music. The focus in this episode is on Gregorian chant.

SNC 06 05 2013 01
Lecture 36
Hildegard of Bingen
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Hildegard of Bingen
Learn about this woman composer from the 12th century.

SNC 06 05 2013 02
Lecture 37
Early Instrumental Music
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Early Instrumental Music
Learn about and listen to examples of instrumental music from before the year 1450.

06 05 2013 03 NEW
Lecture 38
Overview of the Renaissance 1450-1600
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Overview of the Renaissance 1450-1600
Explore historical events and artistic styles of this period in music history.

05 30 2013 06 NEWESTER BESTER
Lecture 39
Renaissance Musical Style
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Renaissance Musical Style
Vocal music from the Renaissance period is performed by choirs even today. Important elements of the style include a cappella singing and the use of word painting. We also look at some examples of instrumental music from the period.

SNC 06 05 2013 04
Lecture 40
Renaissance Vocal Music
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Renaissance Vocal Music
The Reformation and Counter-Reformation had a significant impact on vocal music during the Renaissance.

06 10 2013 05
Lecture 41
The Madrigal
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The Madrigal
One of the most popular vocal genres from early music is the madrigal, an Italian genre that was adopted by the English. The King's Singers illustrate the Italian style and John Farmer's "Fair Phyllis" shows the English approach to the genre. See how word painting is used in Farmer's work.

06 10 2013 06
Lecture 42
Overview of the Baroque Period 1600-1750
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Overview of the Baroque Period 1600-1750
Explore historical events and artistic styles of this period in music history.

05 30 2013 07 NEW
Lecture 43
Tuning Systems
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Tuning Systems
During the Baroque period, equal temperament became the predominant tuning system, replacing modes and just, mean and Pythagorean tuning. This allowed composers to transpose works and to modulate within a piece of music.

06 05 2013 05
Lecture 44
Baroque Musical Style
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Baroque Musical Style
Important changes in the Baroque period include the use of terraced dynamics, ornamentation, basso continuo, and castrati.

SNC 06 10 2013 01
Lecture 45
Antonio Vivaldi and Concerto Grosso
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Antonio Vivaldi and Concerto Grosso
Vivaldi was quite prolific in the genre of concerto grosso, with his most famous set being his Four Seasons.

SN 06 06 2013 08 FIXED
Lecture 46
J.S. Bach and the Baroque Cantata - OpenBucs
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J.S. Bach and the Baroque Cantata - OpenBucs
Bach is perhaps the most famous composer of the Baroque period. Among his hundreds of works are more than 200 cantatas.

06 12 2013 13
Lecture 47
Bach and the Baroque Suite
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Bach and the Baroque Suite
Bach wrote many suites for keyboard instruments such as the harpsichord and clavichord. The focus in this segment is his Suite in E minor, BWV 996.

06 13 2013 04
Lecture 48
The Fugue
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The Fugue
A prominent characteristic of Baroque music is polyphonic texture, illustrated here with a fugue for organ.

07 02 2013 02
Lecture 49
Baroque Opera
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Baroque Opera
One of the new genres from the Baroque period is opera. Claudio Monteverdi's Orfeo is among the earliest operas. Henry Purcell's Dido and Aeneas and Handel's Giulio Cesare are discussed here.

06 10 2013 09
Lecture 50
Ballad Opera
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Ballad Opera
John Gay broke Handel's stranglehold on opera in Italy with the highly popular The Beggar's Opera.

06 06 2013 05
Lecture 51
G.F. Handel and the Oratorio
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G.F. Handel and the Oratorio
When The Beggar's Opera made Italian-style opera an unprofitable venture in London, Handel started writing oratorios like Messiah. Three movements from his Samson are discussed.

06 12 2013 01
Lecture 52
Overview of the Classical Period
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Overview of the Classical Period
An introduction to the historical events and artistic movements of the Classical period.

06 05 2013 06 NEW NEW
Lecture 53
Classical Musical Style
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Classical Musical Style
New developments of the period include use of the crescendo and decrescendo and special orchestral techniques like the Mannheim Steamroller.

06 10 2013 02
Lecture 54
Sonata Cycle, Part I
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Sonata Cycle, Part I
Perhaps the most important innovation in instrumental music is the sonata cycle. This segment introduces the sonata-allegro form using Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik.

SN 06 06 2013 01
Lecture 55
Sonata Cycle, Part II
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Sonata Cycle, Part II
The second movement of Eine kleine Nachtmusik illustrates the slow movement typical of the sonata cycle.

SNC 06 06 2013 02
Lecture 56
Sonata Cycle, Part III
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Sonata Cycle, Part III
The minuet and trio is the third movement of sonata cycle and eventually became the scherzo.

SN 06 06 2013 03
Lecture 57
Sonata Cycle, Part IV
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Sonata Cycle, Part IV
The final movement of a sonata cycle is typically in a fast tempo. The fourth movement of Eine kleine Nachtmusik provides another opportunity to explore the sonata-allegro form.

SN 06 06 2013 04
Lecture 58
Classical Sonata
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Classical Sonata
The sonata cycle is adapted for use in the genre sonata. Here we look at a Beethoven cello sonata.

06 13 2013 07
Lecture 59
Beethoven and the Symphony
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Beethoven and the Symphony
The sonata cycle is used as the basis for most symphonies during the Classical and Romantic periods. Beethoven's Fifth Symphony illustrates how this master of the genre used the famous four-note motive as he transformed the sonata cycle.

06 13 2013 08
Lecture 60
Haydn and the String Quartet
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Haydn and the String Quartet
Joseph Haydn is known as the Father of the String Quartet. The string quartet uses the sonata cycle.

06 13 2013 07 PART TWO
Lecture 61
The Classical Concerto
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The Classical Concerto
The concerto in the Classical period focuses on a solo instrumentalist and eliminates the minuet and trio movement. The second movement of Mozart's Clarinet Concerto showcases one of the composer's favorite instruments.

06 10 2013 12
Lecture 62
The Classical Mass and Requiem
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The Classical Mass and Requiem
Compare "Dies irae" movements from Requiem masses by Mozart and Verdi and "Agnus Dei" movements from masses by Mozart and Haydn.

06 10 2013 13
Lecture 63
Classical Opera
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Classical Opera
Mozart is the king of Classical period opera. This video looks at his The Marriage of Figaro for examples of recitative, aria, and chorus.
Lecture 64
Overview of the Romantic Period 1820-1900
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Overview of the Romantic Period 1820-1900
An introduction to the historical events and artistic movements of the Romantic period.

SN 06 05 2013 07 NEW
Lecture 65
Romantic Musical Style
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Romantic Musical Style
The development of the metronome allowed composers to be very specific about the tempo of pieces. Composers also use more descriptive terms to guide performers in interpreting their works. Orchestration becomes an important compositional element.

06 10 2013 03
Lecture 66
Exoticism: Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade
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Exoticism: Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade
Composers in the Romantic Period were influenced by the art, music, and stories of other cultures. Rimsky-Korsakov tells some of the stories from the Arabian Nights legend in his Scheherazade.

06 12 2013 11
Lecture 67
Introduction to Program Music
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Introduction to Program Music
An important innovation in instrumental music in the Romantic era was program music, or music that has an extra-musical association such as a literature work, painting, or historical event. This segment gives a brief overview of the four types of program music.

06 10 2013 11
Lecture 68
Concert Overture: Tchaikovsky and the 1812
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Concert Overture: Tchaikovsky and the 1812
Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture is one of the best-known concert overtures.
Lecture 69
Incidental Music
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Incidental Music
Movements from Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt show how music was used to support the action of stage plays long before movies used background music.

SNC 06 06 2013 07 L
Lecture 70
Program Symphony
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Program Symphony
Hector Berlioz wrote Symphonie fantastique to describe his infatuation with the actress Harriett Smithson. This video focuses on the fourth movement, "Dream of the Witches' Sabbath."

06 10 2013 14 FIXED 082113
Lecture 71
The Tone Poem and Nationalism
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The Tone Poem and Nationalism
Bedrich Smetana's Moldau illustrates both the symphonic tone poem and the use of nationalism, or the use of folk music and folk stories from one's own cultural background.

06 10 2013 10
Lecture 72
Mariachi Music
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Mariachi Music
The popular Mexican ensemble, mariachi, developed during the Romantic period.

08 01 2013 02
Lecture 73
Art Song
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Art Song
Poets of the Romantic Period provided a wealth of texts for composers to set to music. The art song, or Lied, is a major development in vocal music. Schumann's "Ich Grolle Nicht" illustrates strophic form. Two settings of Goethe's "Erlkönig" are offered for comparison.

06 13 2013 05
Lecture 74
Johannes Brahms & Romantic Vocal Music
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Johannes Brahms & Romantic Vocal Music
While Brahms is perhaps better known for his piano works and symphonies, he also wrote vocal music. This segment explores his solo cantata, Rinaldo, based on a story from Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered.

06 12 2013 03
Lecture 75
Piano Music
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Piano Music
The piano came into its own in the Romantic Period with the development of strong frames and an extended keyboard. Works by Clara Schumann, Chopin, and Liszt are examined.

06 13 2013 06
Lecture 76
Verdi, the Risorgimento and Rigoletto
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Verdi, the Risorgimento and Rigoletto
Verdi's name and his chorus from Nabucco were used as promotional elements during the Italian Risorgimento. His opera Rigoletto demonstrates his mastery of the genre.

08 01 2013 03 (proof complete kk)
Lecture 77
Romantic Opera: Puccini and La Boheme
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Romantic Opera: Puccini and La Boheme
Puccini's La Boheme was panned at first but has become one of the best-loved operas of all time. Explore the way Puccini eliminates the distinction between aria and recitative.

06 10 2013 08
Lecture 78
Richard Wagner and Music Drama
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Richard Wagner and Music Drama
Wagner spent much of his time in exile developing a new approach to opera, resulting in what he then called "music drama." The final scene from Die Walküre illustrates how Wagner used Leitmotifs to connect ideas and characters in his Ring Cycle.

06 12 2013 12
Lecture 79
The Roots of Ballet
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The Roots of Ballet
The court of Louis XIV and its influence on modern ballet are examined.

06 12 2013 06
Lecture 80
Romantic Ballet
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Romantic Ballet
The introduction of dancing en pointe and tutus leads to the ballet as most people know it. Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake illustrates the way party scenes are used to showcase both dancers and nationalist styles. The pas de quatre and finale round out the segment.

06 12 2013 02
Lecture 81
Modern Ballet
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Modern Ballet
Modern techniques in composition and in choreography are illustrated through Stravinsky's Rite of Spring and Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet.

06 12 2013 07
Lecture 82
Impressionism
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Impressionism
Monet and his Impressionist paintings give us a visual equivalent to the new compositional techniques of composers such as Debussy

06 12 2013 08
Lecture 83
Expressionism and Atonal Music
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Expressionism and Atonal Music
The psychological underpinnings of human behavior are explored in Alban Berg's Expressionist opera Wozzeck.

06 12 2013 04
Lecture 84
Overview of the Modern Period
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Overview of the Modern Period
An introduction to the historical events and artistic movements of the Modern period.

SNC 06 05 2013 08 NEW
Lecture 85
Modern Musical Style
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Modern Musical Style
New developments in composition include the use of extended chords, atonality, polytonality, and electronic production and reproduction of sound.

06 10 2013 04
Lecture 86
Arnold Schoenberg and Twelve-Tone Music
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Arnold Schoenberg and Twelve-Tone Music
Schoenberg was an early proponent of atonal music. Learn how to develop a twelve-tone row and how to manipulate it like a composer.

08 01 2013 07
Lecture 87
Charles Ives
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Charles Ives
American composer Charles Ives was a pioneer in the use of polytonality and even polymetric music. His instrumental work Variations on "America" and the art song "Charlie Rutlage" illustrate the unusual compositional techniques of this Pulitzer Prize winner.

06 12 2013 05
Lecture 88
Aaron Copland
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Aaron Copland
Aaron Copland is the best-known American composer from the 20th century.

08 01 2013 05
Lecture 89
John Cage and Prepared Piano
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John Cage and Prepared Piano
John Cage's interest in gamelan music from southeast Asia led to the development of the prepared piano.

SNC 06 06 2013 06
Lecture 90
William Grant Still
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William Grant Still
African-American composer William Grant Still was a major force both in composition and in the advancement of minority composers and performers. His Danzas de Panama illustrate how modern composers use old instruments in new ways.

06 13 2013 09
Lecture 91
The Influence of Art Music on Popular Culture
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The Influence of Art Music on Popular Culture
Art music has been used as the basis for many popular songs throughout the modern era. It has also been used in movies and advertising.

08 01 2013 04