Lecture 1 Play Video |
Photons: Corpuscles of Light (Part I) Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 2 Play Video |
Photons: Corpuscles of Light (Part II)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 3 Play Video |
Photons: Corpuscles of Light (Part III)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 4 Play Video |
Photons: Corpuscles of Light (Part IV)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 5 Play Video |
Photons: Corpuscles of Light (Part V)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 6 Play Video |
Photons: Corpuscles of Light (Part VI)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 7 Play Video |
Photons: Corpuscles of Light (Part VII)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 8 Play Video |
Photons: Corpuscles of Light (Part VIII)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 9 Play Video |
Fits of Reflection and Transmission: Quantum Behaviour (Part I)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 10 Play Video |
Fits of Reflection and Transmission: Quantum Behaviour (Part II)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 11 Play Video |
Fits of Reflection and Transmission: Quantum Behaviour (Part III)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 12 Play Video |
Fits of Reflection and Transmission: Quantum Behaviour (Part IV)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 13 Play Video |
Fits of Reflection and Transmission: Quantum Behaviour (Part V)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 14 Play Video |
Fits of Reflection and Transmission: Quantum Behaviour (Part VI)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 15 Play Video |
Fits of Reflection and Transmission: Quantum Behaviour (Part VII)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 16 Play Video |
Electrons and their Interactions (Part I)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 17 Play Video |
Electrons and their Interactions (Part II)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 18 Play Video |
Electrons and their Interactions (Part III)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 19 Play Video |
Electrons and their Interactions (Part IV)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 20 Play Video |
Electrons and their Interactions (Part V)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 21 Play Video |
Electrons and their Interactions (Part VI)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 22 Play Video |
Electrons and their Interactions (Part VII)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 23 Play Video |
Electrons and their Interactions (Part VIII)
Richard Feynman gives us a lecture on Quantum Electrodynamics, the theory of photons and electron interactions which incorporates his unique view of the fundamental processes that create it. One of the 3 winners of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work, Feynman is an expert on quantum mechanics and developed the path integral formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics used in Quantum Field Theory. He interpreted the Born series of scattering amplitudes as vertices and Green's function propagators in his famous diagrams, the Feynman Diagrams, and also worked on the fundamental excitations in liquid helium leading to a correct model describing superfluidity using phonons, maxons and rotons to describe the various excitation curves. Other fields of work include the Feynman-Hellmann Theorem, which can relate the derivative of the total energy of any system to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian under a single parameter (e.g.: volume). He also worked on the Rogers Commission report during the investigation of the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, where Feynman famously demonstrated how the Booster Rocket O-rings, which are elastic sealing joints, became less resilient and subject to seal failures at ice-cold temperatures by immersing a sample of the material in a glass of ice water. His high intelligence and independent way of looking at the world often made him "a real pain" in the eyes of other, less skilled, commission members. Feynman's own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts, such as safety procedures. Although Feynman got plenty of media coverage due to him being on the Commission, he was often told to stay quiet about NASA's more sinister secrets and tactics in space exploration. |
Lecture 24 Play Video |
New Queries (Part I)
In this final lecture of the series, Feynman discusses the problems which motivated the development of Quantum Electrodynamics, and further problems in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This includes the Electroweak Theory developed by Steven Weinberg, Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow, describing the change of particle flavour by means of a type of neutral current which is asymmetric in nature (found in the study of neutrino flavour change in neutrino detectors and the helicity of neutrinos from the polarisation of beta decay experiments found earlier by Chien-Shiung Wu and her colleagues) and in the detection of particles which break the symmetry in electrodynamic and weak interactions, namely the Z-boson wose S matrix matches that of a photon at energies exceeding 100GeV, giving the so-called Electroweak Force. Moreover, the theory of Nuclear Interactions, in and of themselves, was discovered prior to this, and the interaction of force-carrier particles in the nucleus assumed to exist as a type of propagating Residual Strong Nuclear force which acts in the potential well of the nucleus, gaining strength away from the nuclear well asymptotically. This explains the missing mass of the atoms (pions) and the relativistic properties of these particles within the ranges between the proton and neutron. By detecting high energy cosmic rays and the cascade particles from particle accelerator experiments, a zoo of particles, mesons and baryons was created which were organized in baryon octets and extended into baryon decouplets as new particles were detected with different characteristics (strangeness and charm quantum numbers) which influenced their decay transitions. Such decay transitions required force carriers and certain rules for transition, which did not induce flavour change but a new force called the color force, or the True Strong Nuclear force. For this force to be conceivable, new particles were required called quarks to describe the decay modes. Hence, Quantum Chromodynamics was born from the mind of Murry Gell-Mann. This theory describes gluons in high order interactions, with probabilities in excess of QED. The interactions were very difficult to Feynman, and he preferred to use the parton theory, which is an approximation to QCD and describes very-high energy interactions accurately due to the relative time-dilation of the ultra-relativisitic particles inside baryonic matter that "ignore" intermediates. Feynman, though legendary, did not fully grasp the rule-based QCD interactions which required many intermediates to give numerical results and the polarisation of the particles produced in jets from QCD experiments with heavy ion colliders built in the late 80's and early 90's, which were years after his death. |
Lecture 25 Play Video |
New Queries (Part II)
In this final lecture of the series, Feynman discusses the problems which motivated the development of Quantum Electrodynamics, and further problems in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This includes the Electroweak Theory developed by Steven Weinberg, Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow, describing the change of particle flavour by means of a type of neutral current which is asymmetric in nature (found in the study of neutrino flavour change in neutrino detectors and the helicity of neutrinos from the polarisation of beta decay experiments found earlier by Chien-Shiung Wu and her colleagues) and in the detection of particles which break the symmetry in electrodynamic and weak interactions, namely the Z-boson wose S matrix matches that of a photon at energies exceeding 100GeV, giving the so-called Electroweak Force. Moreover, the theory of Nuclear Interactions, in and of themselves, was discovered prior to this, and the interaction of force-carrier particles in the nucleus assumed to exist as a type of propagating Residual Strong Nuclear force which acts in the potential well of the nucleus, gaining strength away from the nuclear well asymptotically. This explains the missing mass of the atoms (pions) and the relativistic properties of these particles within the ranges between the proton and neutron. By detecting high energy cosmic rays and the cascade particles from particle accelerator experiments, a zoo of particles, mesons and baryons was created which were organized in baryon octets and extended into baryon decouplets as new particles were detected with different characteristics (strangeness and charm quantum numbers) which influenced their decay transitions. Such decay transitions required force carriers and certain rules for transition, which did not induce flavour change but a new force called the color force, or the True Strong Nuclear force. For this force to be conceivable, new particles were required called quarks to describe the decay modes. Hence, Quantum Chromodynamics was born from the mind of Murry Gell-Mann. This theory describes gluons in high order interactions, with probabilities in excess of QED. The interactions were very difficult to Feynman, and he preferred to use the parton theory, which is an approximation to QCD and describes very-high energy interactions accurately due to the relative time-dilation of the ultra-relativisitic particles inside baryonic matter that "ignore" intermediates. Feynman, though legendary, did not fully grasp the rule-based QCD interactions which required many intermediates to give numerical results and the polarisation of the particles produced in jets from QCD experiments with heavy ion colliders built in the late 80's and early 90's, which were years after his death. |
Lecture 26 Play Video |
New Queries (Part III)
In this final lecture of the series, Feynman discusses the problems which motivated the development of Quantum Electrodynamics, and further problems in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This includes the Electroweak Theory developed by Steven Weinberg, Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow, describing the change of particle flavour by means of a type of neutral current which is asymmetric in nature (found in the study of neutrino flavour change in neutrino detectors and the helicity of neutrinos from the polarisation of beta decay experiments found earlier by Chien-Shiung Wu and her colleagues) and in the detection of particles which break the symmetry in electrodynamic and weak interactions, namely the Z-boson wose S matrix matches that of a photon at energies exceeding 100GeV, giving the so-called Electroweak Force. Moreover, the theory of Nuclear Interactions, in and of themselves, was discovered prior to this, and the interaction of force-carrier particles in the nucleus assumed to exist as a type of propagating Residual Strong Nuclear force which acts in the potential well of the nucleus, gaining strength away from the nuclear well asymptotically. This explains the missing mass of the atoms (pions) and the relativistic properties of these particles within the ranges between the proton and neutron. By detecting high energy cosmic rays and the cascade particles from particle accelerator experiments, a zoo of particles, mesons and baryons was created which were organized in baryon octets and extended into baryon decouplets as new particles were detected with different characteristics (strangeness and charm quantum numbers) which influenced their decay transitions. Such decay transitions required force carriers and certain rules for transition, which did not induce flavour change but a new force called the color force, or the True Strong Nuclear force. For this force to be conceivable, new particles were required called quarks to describe the decay modes. Hence, Quantum Chromodynamics was born from the mind of Murry Gell-Mann. This theory describes gluons in high order interactions, with probabilities in excess of QED. The interactions were very difficult to Feynman, and he preferred to use the parton theory, which is an approximation to QCD and describes very-high energy interactions accurately due to the relative time-dilation of the ultra-relativisitic particles inside baryonic matter that "ignore" intermediates. Feynman, though legendary, did not fully grasp the rule-based QCD interactions which required many intermediates to give numerical results and the polarisation of the particles produced in jets from QCD experiments with heavy ion colliders built in the late 80's and early 90's, which were years after his death. |
Lecture 27 Play Video |
New Queries (Part IV)
In this final lecture of the series, Feynman discusses the problems which motivated the development of Quantum Electrodynamics, and further problems in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This includes the Electroweak Theory developed by Steven Weinberg, Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow, describing the change of particle flavour by means of a type of neutral current which is asymmetric in nature (found in the study of neutrino flavour change in neutrino detectors and the helicity of neutrinos from the polarisation of beta decay experiments found earlier by Chien-Shiung Wu and her colleagues) and in the detection of particles which break the symmetry in electrodynamic and weak interactions, namely the Z-boson wose S matrix matches that of a photon at energies exceeding 100GeV, giving the so-called Electroweak Force. Moreover, the theory of Nuclear Interactions, in and of themselves, was discovered prior to this, and the interaction of force-carrier particles in the nucleus assumed to exist as a type of propagating Residual Strong Nuclear force which acts in the potential well of the nucleus, gaining strength away from the nuclear well asymptotically. This explains the missing mass of the atoms (pions) and the relativistic properties of these particles within the ranges between the proton and neutron. By detecting high energy cosmic rays and the cascade particles from particle accelerator experiments, a zoo of particles, mesons and baryons was created which were organized in baryon octets and extended into baryon decouplets as new particles were detected with different characteristics (strangeness and charm quantum numbers) which influenced their decay transitions. Such decay transitions required force carriers and certain rules for transition, which did not induce flavour change but a new force called the color force, or the True Strong Nuclear force. For this force to be conceivable, new particles were required called quarks to describe the decay modes. Hence, Quantum Chromodynamics was born from the mind of Murry Gell-Mann. This theory describes gluons in high order interactions, with probabilities in excess of QED. The interactions were very difficult to Feynman, and he preferred to use the parton theory, which is an approximation to QCD and describes very-high energy interactions accurately due to the relative time-dilation of the ultra-relativisitic particles inside baryonic matter that "ignore" intermediates. Feynman, though legendary, did not fully grasp the rule-based QCD interactions which required many intermediates to give numerical results and the polarisation of the particles produced in jets from QCD experiments with heavy ion colliders built in the late 80's and early 90's, which were years after his death. |
Lecture 28 Play Video |
New Queries (Part V)
In this final lecture of the series, Feynman discusses the problems which motivated the development of Quantum Electrodynamics, and further problems in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This includes the Electroweak Theory developed by Steven Weinberg, Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow, describing the change of particle flavour by means of a type of neutral current which is asymmetric in nature (found in the study of neutrino flavour change in neutrino detectors and the helicity of neutrinos from the polarisation of beta decay experiments found earlier by Chien-Shiung Wu and her colleagues) and in the detection of particles which break the symmetry in electrodynamic and weak interactions, namely the Z-boson wose S matrix matches that of a photon at energies exceeding 100GeV, giving the so-called Electroweak Force. Moreover, the theory of Nuclear Interactions, in and of themselves, was discovered prior to this, and the interaction of force-carrier particles in the nucleus assumed to exist as a type of propagating Residual Strong Nuclear force which acts in the potential well of the nucleus, gaining strength away from the nuclear well asymptotically. This explains the missing mass of the atoms (pions) and the relativistic properties of these particles within the ranges between the proton and neutron. By detecting high energy cosmic rays and the cascade particles from particle accelerator experiments, a zoo of particles, mesons and baryons was created which were organized in baryon octets and extended into baryon decouplets as new particles were detected with different characteristics (strangeness and charm quantum numbers) which influenced their decay transitions. Such decay transitions required force carriers and certain rules for transition, which did not induce flavour change but a new force called the color force, or the True Strong Nuclear force. For this force to be conceivable, new particles were required called quarks to describe the decay modes. Hence, Quantum Chromodynamics was born from the mind of Murry Gell-Mann. This theory describes gluons in high order interactions, with probabilities in excess of QED. The interactions were very difficult to Feynman, and he preferred to use the parton theory, which is an approximation to QCD and describes very-high energy interactions accurately due to the relative time-dilation of the ultra-relativisitic particles inside baryonic matter that "ignore" intermediates. Feynman, though legendary, did not fully grasp the rule-based QCD interactions which required many intermediates to give numerical results and the polarisation of the particles produced in jets from QCD experiments with heavy ion colliders built in the late 80's and early 90's, which were years after his death. |
Lecture 29 Play Video |
New Queries (Part VI)
In this final lecture of the series, Feynman discusses the problems which motivated the development of Quantum Electrodynamics, and further problems in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This includes the Electroweak Theory developed by Steven Weinberg, Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow, describing the change of particle flavour by means of a type of neutral current which is asymmetric in nature (found in the study of neutrino flavour change in neutrino detectors and the helicity of neutrinos from the polarisation of beta decay experiments found earlier by Chien-Shiung Wu and her colleagues) and in the detection of particles which break the symmetry in electrodynamic and weak interactions, namely the Z-boson wose S matrix matches that of a photon at energies exceeding 100GeV, giving the so-called Electroweak Force. Moreover, the theory of Nuclear Interactions, in and of themselves, was discovered prior to this, and the interaction of force-carrier particles in the nucleus assumed to exist as a type of propagating Residual Strong Nuclear force which acts in the potential well of the nucleus, gaining strength away from the nuclear well asymptotically. This explains the missing mass of the atoms (pions) and the relativistic properties of these particles within the ranges between the proton and neutron. By detecting high energy cosmic rays and the cascade particles from particle accelerator experiments, a zoo of particles, mesons and baryons was created which were organized in baryon octets and extended into baryon decouplets as new particles were detected with different characteristics (strangeness and charm quantum numbers) which influenced their decay transitions. Such decay transitions required force carriers and certain rules for transition, which did not induce flavour change but a new force called the color force, or the True Strong Nuclear force. For this force to be conceivable, new particles were required called quarks to describe the decay modes. Hence, Quantum Chromodynamics was born from the mind of Murry Gell-Mann. This theory describes gluons in high order interactions, with probabilities in excess of QED. The interactions were very difficult to Feynman, and he preferred to use the parton theory, which is an approximation to QCD and describes very-high energy interactions accurately due to the relative time-dilation of the ultra-relativisitic particles inside baryonic matter that "ignore" intermediates. Feynman, though legendary, did not fully grasp the rule-based QCD interactions which required many intermediates to give numerical results and the polarisation of the particles produced in jets from QCD experiments with heavy ion colliders built in the late 80's and early 90's, which were years after his death. |
Lecture 30 Play Video |
New Queries (Part VII) In this final lecture of the series, Feynman discusses the problems which motivated the development of Quantum Electrodynamics, and further problems in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This includes the Electroweak Theory developed by Steven Weinberg, Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow, describing the change of particle flavour by means of a type of neutral current which is asymmetric in nature (found in the study of neutrino flavour change in neutrino detectors and the helicity of neutrinos from the polarisation of beta decay experiments found earlier by Chien-Shiung Wu and her colleagues) and in the detection of particles which break the symmetry in electrodynamic and weak interactions, namely the Z-boson wose S matrix matches that of a photon at energies exceeding 100GeV, giving the so-called Electroweak Force. Moreover, the theory of Nuclear Interactions, in and of themselves, was discovered prior to this, and the interaction of force-carrier particles in the nucleus assumed to exist as a type of propagating Residual Strong Nuclear force which acts in the potential well of the nucleus, gaining strength away from the nuclear well asymptotically. This explains the missing mass of the atoms (pions) and the relativistic properties of these particles within the ranges between the proton and neutron. By detecting high energy cosmic rays and the cascade particles from particle accelerator experiments, a zoo of particles, mesons and baryons was created which were organized in baryon octets and extended into baryon decouplets as new particles were detected with different characteristics (strangeness and charm quantum numbers) which influenced their decay transitions. Such decay transitions required force carriers and certain rules for transition, which did not induce flavour change but a new force called the color force, or the True Strong Nuclear force. For this force to be conceivable, new particles were required called quarks to describe the decay modes. Hence, Quantum Chromodynamics was born from the mind of Murry Gell-Mann. This theory describes gluons in high order interactions, with probabilities in excess of QED. The interactions were very difficult to Feynman, and he preferred to use the parton theory, which is an approximation to QCD and describes very-high energy interactions accurately due to the relative time-dilation of the ultra-relativisitic particles inside baryonic matter that "ignore" intermediates. Feynman, though legendary, did not fully grasp the rule-based QCD interactions which required many intermediates to give numerical results and the polarisation of the particles produced in jets from QCD experiments with heavy ion colliders built in the late 80's and early 90's, which were years after his death. |