History's Turning Points (1995) Ambrose Video

1532 AD: The Conquest of the Incas

F Video 7 of 12 L
Views: 2,231
Added: 11 years ago.
Watch Part Number: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |

Video Description

1532: The Conquest of the Incas
How did Pizarro, a 50-year-old illiterate ex-swineherd with a force of only 200, conquer a realm that stretched from southern Colombia to central Chile? Partly it was superior weapons and the horse. Partly it was the swift capture of Atahuallpa, which effectively beheaded the Inca decision-making hierarchy. Partly it was the empire's exhausted condition after a five-year-long civil war between the brothers Atahuallpa and Huascar. Partly it was the Indian allies of the Spanish. But over the long haul, in terms of taking and holding the region, the role of disease cannot be underestimated. It has been suggested that European diseases--smallpox, measles, mumps, influenza, and typhus--reduced the pre-conquest population of some 12 million people to about 670,000 within the span of a century.

1528. Francisco Pizarro lands at Tumbes, southwest of Quito, his men report walls covered with gold and silver. Pizarro returns to Panama and then Spain, and asks the crown for help in conquering the region.
1528. The Inca ruler Huayna Capac and his designated successor die of smallpox, which is spreading south from Panama, precipitating civil war between his sons Atahuallpa in Quito and Huascar in Cusco.
January, 1531. Pizarro sets out from Panama with his invasion force, 200 horsemen and foot soldiers, and arrives at Tumbes by April 1532.
1532. End of five-year civil war with capture of Huascar, who is later executed on Atahuallpa's order.
November 16, 1532. Pizarro entraps Atahuallpa at Cajamarca.
July 26, 1533. Atahuallpa garroted on Pizarro's order.
May 3, 1534. Manco, a younger son of Huayna and at first a puppet of the Spanish, rebels and after a three-year struggle retreats to jungle sanctuary of Vilcabamba in 1537.
1544. Manco killed by Spanish outcasts hoping to redeem themselves with the crown by his murder.
1561. Sayri Tupac, son of Manco, negotiates with Spanish and in return for recognition and limited estates returns to Cusco.
1571. Titu Cusi, son of Manco, dies.
1572. Capture of Tupac Amaru, son of Manco, and his execution in Cusco.

Source: www.archaeology.org

Documentary Description

Note that not all videos of this series are available in the web. We have so far 12 of the total 26 of the complete series. However, CosmoLearning has made available numerous documentaries about the remaining chapters, as indicated in the description below. Please check these links since they refer to some of the best productions ever made about World History.

History's Turning Points - Vol. I is a thirteen part series on decisive moments in world history. Each turning point in history has behind it a story and a set of principal characters whose dilemmas and conflicts form its dramatic core, and whose unique personalities influenced the outcome of events. How would the development of one of the world's greatest civilizations, China, have been different without the ruthless ambition of its first emperor, Chin? Would the British have won Quebec in the eighteenth century without the tenacity and devotion to duty of General John Wolfe? New facts, often from indigenous sources, have emerged to add to our understanding of these crucial events and these, together with the latest historical research and documented first-hand accounts, bring each turning point vividly to life. Exclusive dramatizations carried out at the actual sites of the events, History's Turning Points provides a fascinating and intriguing new perspective on the significant moments that have changed the world.

Volume 1 Content:


At Salamis Bay, the Golden Age began when the Greeks expel the Persians, sinking 200 Persian ships while losing only 40 of their own. Themistocles not only was not rewarded for his victory, but was removed as Athen's leader for being too arrogant.


To seal off his empire from marauders, Chin commanded the building of the Great Wall. Three hundred thousand were employed, and thousands, especially the scholars, died and were buried within the wall. Called "the world's longest graveyard", it was his greatest accomplishment and his greatest tragedy.


If the battle of Actium had been won by Cleopatra and Antony, there would have been no Roman Empire. Yet Octavius Caesar's victory in 31 BC created an absolute dictatorship that sparked one-of the greatest imperial and cultural expansions the world has ever known.


By the 8th century, the rise of the Muslim Empire spread Arab rule over the Middle East, Egypt, and North Africa. After appointing a Berber, Tariq, to invade Spain, the Arabs enslaved the Visigoth Kingdom. Seven centuries of their Moorish rule brought accomplishments in mathematics, architecture, and science.


When a plague-ridden ship landed in Venice in 1347, it was immediately put into quarantine...but no one could stop the rats from corning ashore. Within three years, a third of Western Europe's population was dead. It was the greatest calamity in history.


In 1204 crusaders sacked the city, then renamed Constantinople. For the next thousand years, the Byzantine Kings hid safely behind the massive walls of Constantinople. Then in 1453, with the Turkish Ottoman Empire encircling the city, Sultan Mehmet brought the newest technology of the 15th century, the cannon, and finally brought down the walls of the world's most impregnable fortress.


When Pizarro, 170 soldiers and a friar arrived, The Inca, scornful of the scruffy Spaniards, invited them to stay in the town. They kidnapped the Inca, collected a ransom and killed him. But the plunder had only begun. The Spaniards diseases wiped out 90% of the Incas.


On the land of the Algonquins, 150 English settlers had built a trading post called James Town. And though Captain John Smith promised the Indians the colony was temporary, they saw it as a lie. He was captured and about to be stoned, when 13 year old Pocahontas, the favorite among Chief Pohantan's hundred children, intervened.


In the first half of the 18th century, British and French interests in North America increasingly overlapped. British war minister William Pitt ordered an invasion up the St. Lawrence. Racing winter, British forces scaled the cliffs near Quebec City at night, with no retreat possible.


After diamonds were discovered at Kimberley and gold in the Transvaal, British colonization stepped up. Charged with stopping Zulu attacks, 5000 British soldiers invaded Zululand, setting camp at Isandalwana, they more than 1300 Brits died.


In 1902, the Japanese attacked the Russian city of Port Arthur. Using the teaching of his model Admiral Nelson, Admiral Togo defeated the corrupt Russian navy, with aristocrat-officers and brightly painted ships. Russia surrendered South Manchuria to the Japanese, changing the balance of power in Asia forever.


Both Lenin and Kerensky were driven to overthrow the Czar. From similar backgrounds, they were both fervent revolutionaries. Lenin wanted the rich to be poor; Kerensky wanted the poor to be rich. Lenin, a charismatic workaholic, won because he would not compromise.

You can find many videos about the Russian Revolution in many links in CosmoLearning, such as:




Without doubt, the Second World War was the most momentous event in U.S. history. Few single instants have marked so great and historic watershed as 9:15 a.m., August 6, 1945. Traditional war as an instrument of international policy ended completely, and future relations between nations changed drastically afterward.

Follow some of the links in CosmoLearning where you can find documentaries about the Atomic Bomb in 1945:



History's Turning Points Vol. 2 is a sequel to the best selling series. It continues with thirteen additional moments in time that changed the course of history. These docudramas, with dramatizations carried out at the actual sites of the events and some newly released historical footage, provide perspectives of these events that only visual interpretations of the latest in historical research can provide. Fly with the Wright Brothers, storm the Bastille, learn how television was created and what it meant to the war in Vietnam. A captivating journey into World History.

Volume 2 Content:


The bomb explodes, but against all odds Europe's most hated dictator survives In July 1944 Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, a trusted junior officer of the Nazi home army, entered Hitler's high security headquarters, the Wolf's Lair, intent to kill his Furher. He stakes his life on success and a restoration of honor for Germany. The bomb explodes, but by a curious twist of fate, does not kill Hitler, who goes on to be responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands more men, women and children in the last nine months of the war.

The documentary below - part of the renowned series The World at War - shows the plot to kill Hitler, including an interview with his secretary:



A prison is stormed and modern France is born On July 14th 1789 the starving and destitute citizens of Paris riot in search of food and weapons. The people storm the Bastille, dreaded symbol of royal rule, determined to liberate its prisoners and seize its weapons. Its ill fated governor, Monsieur De Launay eventually surrenders, overwhelmed by the number of besiegers. He becomes the first nobleman to die at the hands of the citizens and the people of France learn through violent struggle they might realize their dream of a people's republic.

For a complete documentary about the French Revolution:



Schliemann finds the site of Ancient Troy and the mythical past becomes scientific fact. Heinrich Schliemann was a German grocer's boy who had made a fortune in the gold fields of California and became an archaeologist. He dug for three years at Hissarlik in modern Turkey, determined to prove that it was the site of the Troy of the ancient epic story of Homer's Iliad. In 1873 he discovers a glorious horde of treasure and opens the world's eyes to the wonders of the ancient past. The mythical world of the heroes of the Iliad had become reality.

Follow the link for the Topic Troy in CosmoLearning, with 8 hours of documentaries so far:



Television explodes into a business and in one generation revolutionized our lives David Sarnoff, a poor Russian immigrant, was the first person to recognize the financial and commercial potential for television. He had championed the radio mania of the 1920s and set out to put a television in every home in America. At the World's Fair in Flushing Meadows, New York on April 30th 1939, Sarnoff unveils commercial television, the most powerful means of advertising and entertainment yet invented. Our world would never be the same again.


The Volstead Act is passed and the Mafia takes over America. In 1920 the American government cracks down on drinking and bans the sale and consumption of alcohol. But instead of making America a better place, prohibition funds the creation of an even greater evil - the Mafia. Chicago becomes a city torn by rival gangs led by the notorious Al Capone and his arch enemy Bugs Moran. On St. Valentine's Day Al Capone's men massacre members of Moran's gang in a blood bath at a disused garage. The murders horrify America and on February 20 1933, prohibition is abolished, ridding the gangsters of their most valuable source of income.

In the topic United States you can find three documentaries about the History of the Mob:



The murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggers the start of a world war

Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire arrived with his wife Sophie in the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Sarajevo on June 28th 1914. His visit is a show of strength to the rebellious Serb Nationalists. That day saw him assassinated with his wife by Gavrilo Princip, an idealistic 18 year old, in the streets of Sarajevo. Their assassination set in motion a chain of events which led rapidly to the outbreak of World War I and the end of an era.

The link below show the first chapter of the best series ever made about the WWI,  showing the origins of the shot that triggered the War:



The planned Spanish invasion of England fails and England dominates the waves

It is 1588 and the conflict between the Catholic Philip II of Spain and the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England is at a breaking point. In May Philip launches the Spanish Armada, an invincible fleet of 130 ships to conquer English shores Sir Francis Drake and the English fleet sail from Plymouth to meet the invaders. The English overcome the far larger Spanish fleet by using fireships. The broken Armada is forced to flee North where many die off the hostile coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Philip's dream of a Europe united under Catholic rule is shattered.

For a complete documentary about the Spanish Armada:



Mao turns defeat into victory and Chinese communism is born

Mao Tse-tung, the leader of China's Communist First Front Army flees the forces of his arch enemy, the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai Shek. Mao and his one hundred thousand strong peasant army battle against the Nationalists and nature itself, fleeing over 6000 miles through 12 provinces over 18 mountain ranges and across 24 rivers in an epic test of human endurance. Only six thousand men survive but Mao lives to become the undisputed father of Chinese Communism and 14 years after his epic journey becomes Chairman of the People's Republic of China.

A complete documentary about Mao, including the Long March:



The RAF defeats the Luftwaffe and democracy is saved

Britain's fighter pilots take to the skies in the summer of 1940 in order to maintain control of the English Channel and stave off Hitler's planned invasion. When German bombers lose their way and drop bombs on London on August 24, Prime Minister Churchill retaliates by sending planes to attack Berlin. Hitler's Luftwaffe shifts its attack to British cities and kills thousands of civilians during the Blitz. But despite terrible losses the British pilots fight gallantly and eventually force Hitler to abandon indefinitely his plans for a land invasion of Britain.

Follow links with documentaries about the Battle of Britain:





The Wright brothers reach for the clouds and world air travel becomes a reality

Orville and Wilbur Wright, two bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio are determined to prove that man can fly. After years of research, the two brothers eventually construct the Flyer and on the sands of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17 1903 Orville Wright becomes the first man to fly in a self-propelled engine powered plane. The age of flight has arrived.


The French army is destroyed by the Russian winter and a new Empire is created In 1812 Napoleon, Emperor of France determines to defeat Alexander I Tsar of all Russias and establish himself as the most formidable military leader in Europe. He sets out to conquer Russia with half a million men. Although he captures Moscow, the Russian capital, hundreds of thousands of soldiers die, frozen or starved to death on Russia's open plains. Rather than the greatest of his military victories, Napoleon's invasion of Russia becomes a disorganized retreat. His dream of a united Europe under France is destroyed forever.

Here you can find a complete documentary about Napoleon, including the invasion of Russia:



A Communist invasion in the Far East brings the world close to nuclear war

When communist North Korea invades the democratic South in 1950, the US World War II hero, General MacArthur is determined to put an end to the Red menace for good. With his daring landing at Inchon, he pulls off one of the greatest military operations ever. But when he orders his troops north to the Yalu river, Communist China joins the war. Their massive land and jet plane attacks drive the United Nations forces back into South Korea and MacArthur threatens to drop atomic bombs in China, a move that could spark off global nuclear war. Just in time, US President Harry Truman prevents this by firing MacArthur. World War III has been avoided, but the Cold War has truly started.

Documentary about the War in Korea:




Walter Cronkite and the media question a victory and the war in Vietnam is lost

During the Tet truce for Chinese New Year, January 31st 1968, the Vietcong carry out a surprise attack on America's Embassy in Vietnam's capital, Saigon. It is the beginning of a country-wide offensive as major cities are assaulted all over Vietnam and thousands are killed. Television footage of the attacks are broadcast in America where the CBS Anchorman Walter Cronkite publicly questions America's involvement in the war. His report sends shock waves through an American public already wavering in their support for President Lyndon Johnson.

Here are some links where you can find documentaries about the Vietnam War:







There are no comments. Be the first to post one.
  Post comment as a guest user.
Click to login or register:
Your name:
Your email:
(will not appear)
Your comment:
(max. 1000 characters)
Are you human? (Sorry)