Napoleon (2000) PBS Empires

The End

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Video Description

The End

Episode IV describes Napoleon's downfall, including the invasion and subsequent retreat from Russia, and his final battles, in which all of Europe is arrayed against him. Exiled to Elba, he returns to France after just ten months, only to be defeated for the last time at Waterloo. Napoleon spends his final days exiled on an island far out in the Atlantic, where he writes his memoirs and reinvents his legend.

Classroom Materials,


Church and State

Grade level: 7-12

Subjects: Social Studies, History, Government, Religion

Estimated Time of Completion: 3 to 5 class periods

I. Objectives

II. Standards

III. Materials Needed

IV. Procedure

V. Assessment Suggestions

VI. Extensions/Adaptations


Students will use information they have learned from the PBS "Napoleon" series along with other examples from history to examine the separation of church and state in national governance. Students will study world governments that practice the separation of church and state and those that did not. Students will then analyze the effectiveness of the various governments.


This lesson correlates to the following national standards for history, established by MCREL at

* Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

* Understand the institutions and practices of government created during the Revolution and how these elements were revised between 1787 and 1815 to create the foundation of the American political system based on the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights.


* A copy of the PBS "Napoleon" video series

* Computers with Internet access

* Art supplies


1. Begin by discussing what it means to separate church and state in national governance. It would probably be helpful to give several examples. Examples should be chosen by the teacher and relate to material students have studied previously. The teacher could then ask students to generate examples they know of as well. One example might be the provisions established by the U.S. government in the Bill of Rights; another contemporary example would be the Taliban in Afghanistan.

2. Have students brainstorm a list of reasons why someone might want to connect the church with national government. Post the list in a prominent place in the classroom and label it "Church and State Together." The teacher might begin by providing an example such as: A person might want to keep church and state together in government in order to make people obey by making them think that by refusing some aspect of government, they are disobeying their religion.

3. Next have students brainstorm and list reasons why keeping church and state together when governing could be a bad thing. Post the list next to the previous one and label it "Keeping Church and State Separate." Again, the teacher might begin by providing an example such as the fact that many countries, such as the U.S., have people who practice a variety of religions or no religion at all. By bringing religion into government, some groups could feel alienated and want to change the government or not follow laws because of religious influences.

4. Explain to students that Napoleon used the church to help him establish himself as the leader of France. Then have students view the following portions of Episode 2 "Mastering Luck" beginning with the section where he amends the constitution and gains power for life (approximately 13:00 to end). They should pay special attention to recording information that will help them answer the following questions

* What was the Concordat that was signed in 1801?

* How did the Concordat secure power?

* When Napoleon appointed himself Emperor in 1804, why did he involve the Pope in the ceremony?

5. After viewing, discuss the various answers students had to the questions listed above. Ask students to write a brief paragraph on how and why they believe Napoleon used religion to control the people of France.

6. Remind students that Napoleon compares himself to Alexander the Great and Caesar many times. Have them begin their research by looking at how these two men used religion as part of their governments. Students should record specific ways these leaders used religion in their rule. They should also record the results of using religion as part of the government. Was it successful or not, and why? Research materials are available online at the following sites:

In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great

Encylopedia Brittanica: Julius Caesar,5716,114507+3,...

7. Once students have gathered their information about leaders who mixed church and state, they should begin focusing on a government that split the two, such as the current U.S. government. Students should research ways the U.S. government separates church and state. Students should look for reasons why the U.S. has chosen to keep church and state separate, and they should record whether or not they believe the U. S. government has been successful with this.

Online resources are available at:

Government vs. Religion in the United States

PBS Online NewsHour (use Search function with keywords "church" and "state")

8. Since this is a presidential election year, students might also examine briefly how various candidates are addressing religious issues in their campaigns and how religion affects campaign issues. Some topics for discussion might include school prayer, abortion, and evolution vs. creationism. More information about these issued can be found by accessing online resources such as:

9. Now that research is complete, have students create a visual representation of what they have learned by making a poster-sized collage or drawing, a timeline, a T Chart, or even a Venn Diagram that contains what they have learned about the separation of church and state.

10. Once students have finished creating their visual presentations, they should share them with the class or a small group. They should then be posted for others to see and study.


Create a scoring guide for the visual representation and/or oral presentation of what was learned. Be sure to have students identify specifically what they learned from their research about Caesar, Alexander the Great, Napoleon, and the U.S. government and the way they addressed the separation of church and state.


1. Imagine you live in a country where church and state are not separated. Write a diary entry, short story, or letter to a friend describing how your daily activities are different from the way they used to be before this new government was put into place. Discuss whether you like or dislike this new form of government.

2. Write and perform a play or skit that shows the different way of life you have described in activity 1 above. Be sure the audience knows your opinion of the separation of church and state when the play/skit is finished.

About the Author

Lisa Prososki taught English, reading, social studies, and technology courses throughout her twelve years as a school teacher with North Kansas City Schools in Kansas City, Missouri. She is currently operating a consulting business from her home while being a full time mother to her 1 year old son.

Documentary Description

Napoleon is a four-hour series from award-winning filmmaker David Grubin, who most recently produced the much-lauded TR, The Story of Theodore Roosevelt mini-series for the American Experience.

Napoleon tells the story of the emperor who was also soldier, lover, and statesman — a towering historical figure riddled with contradictions. The mini-series is framed by the grand sweep of history, woven from intimate accounts of and by the man himself — a story of ambition, pride, conquest, and eventually exile and loss. The mini-series is produced by David Grubin Productions in association with Devillier Donegan Enterprises.


To Destiny

Episode I recounts the story of Napoleon's extraordinary rise from Corsican obscurity to the victories in Italy that made him a hero to the French people and convinced him that he was destined for greatness. It also tells of his love for Josephine Beauharnais, a woman of extravagant habits and tastes, who did not at first return his passionate affection.

Mastering Luck

Episode II charts Napoleon's ascent to absolute power, from victorious General to first Consul to Emperor of France. It describes his extraordinary achievements – from the Napoleonic Code and the Bank of France, to bridges, roads, and canals – as well as the tyrannical nature of his rule and the violent opposition of most of Europe.

The Summit of Ambition

Episode III witnesses Napoleon conquer most of Europe in a series of brilliant triumphs, including his legendary victory at the Battle of Austerlitz. To sustain his rule, he must keep fighting. But when he invades Spain, he has begun to reach too far.

The End

Episode IV describes Napoleon's downfall, including the invasion and subsequent retreat from Russia, and his final battles, in which all of Europe is arrayed against him. Exiled to Elba, he returns to France after just ten months, only to be defeated for the last time at Waterloo. Napoleon spends his final days exiled on an island far out in the Atlantic, where he writes his memoirs and reinvents his legend.


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