NASA STS-128 Mission Footage (2009)

Discovery

Discovery launched at 11:59 p.m. EDT Friday to deliver supplies and equipment to the International Space Station.
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Videos in this documentary

# Video Play
1 May 11, 2009 Shuttle External Fuel Tank Arrives At KSC Play Video
2 July 26, 2009 STS-128: Discovery "rollover" and lift Play Video
3 August 02, 2009 STS-128 Discovery Payload Arrives at NASA Launch Pad Play Video
4 August 04, 2009 STS-128 Space Shuttle Discovery rollout to Launch Pad Play Video
5 August 05, 2009 STS 128 TCDT Crew Arrival Play Video
6 August 13, 2009 STS-128 TCDT Play Video
7 August 12, 2009 STS-128 Preflight Briefing Animation Play Video
8 August 28, 2009 STS-128 Crew Walk Out To Astrovan Play Video
9 August 28, 2009 STS-128 Launch Play Video
10 August 28, 2009 STS-128 Launch Replay Play Video
11 August 28, 2009 STS-128 Discovery 1080p NASA,HD Play Video
12 August 28, 2009 STS-128 Full Launch 10min 1080p HD Play Video
13 August 28, 2009 Launch of STS-128 from T-9 minutes to MECO (HD) Play Video
14 August 30, 2009 STS-128 Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver Play Video
15 August 30, 2009 STS-128 ISS Docking Play Video
16 August 30, 2009 STS-128/ISS Hatch Opening Play Video
17 September 1, 2009 STS-128 EVA #1 Play Video
18 September 4, 2009 STS-128 Spacewalk EVA#1 BRFG Play Video
19 September 02, 2009 STS-128 EVA#1 HIGHLIGHTS Play Video
20 August 13, 2009 STS-128 Spacewalk EVA#2 BRFG Play Video
21 September 4, 2009 STS-128 EVA#2 HIGHLIGHTS Play Video
22 August 13, 2009 STS-128 Spacewalk EVA#3 BRFG Play Video
23 September 6, 2009 STS-128 EVA#3 Third and Final Spacewalk Play Video
24 September 7, 2009 STS-128 ISS Farewell and Hatch Closure Play Video
25 September 8, 2009 STS-128 Undocking & ISS Fly-around Play Video
26 September 11, 2009 STS-128 Landing Play Video
27 September 11, 2009 STS-128 Landing at Edwards Air Force Base 11 Sept 2009 (Sonic Boom) Play Video
28 September 11, 2009 STS-128 Landing Replay - PPOV - HD Play Video
29 September 20, 2009 Discovery atop Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft Play Video

Documentary Description

STS-128 Mission Footage

NASA Mission Summary
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Washington, D.C. 20546
(202) 358-1100

STS-128 MISSION SUMMARY August 2009

CREW
Rick Sturckow (STUR-coe)
Commander (Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps)
- Veteran of three spaceflights
- Age: 48 (Aug. 11), Hometown: Lakeside, Calif.
- Married with two children
- Enjoys flying and physical training
- Nickname: C.J.
Kevin Ford
Pilot (Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Ret.)
- First spaceflight
- Age: 49, Hometown: Montpelier, Ind.
- Married with two children
- Ph.D. in astronautical engineering, 1997
- Served as a CAPCOM from 2005-2008
John "Danny" Olivas (oh-LEE-vuhs)
Mission Specialist-3 (Ph.D)
- Veteran of one spaceflight
- Age: 43, Hometown: El Paso
- Married with five children
- Ph.D. in mechanical engineering & materials science, 1996
Patrick Forrester
Mission Specialist-1 (Colonel, U.S. Army, Ret.)
- Veteran of two spaceflights
- Age: 52, Hometown: Springfield, Va.
- Married with two children
- Logged 4,400+ hours in 50+ different aircraft
- Enjoys baseball and running
José Hernández
Mission Specialist-2
- First spaceflight
- Age: 47, Hometown: Stockton, Calif.
- Married with five children
- NASA’s first bilingual Twitter, @Astro_Jose
- From Mexican migrant farming family
Nicole Stott
Mission Specialist-5/Expedition 20 Flight Engineer
- First spaceflight
- Age: 46, Hometown: Clearwater, Fla.
- Married with one child
- Returns on STS-129, targeted November 2009
- Last station astronaut to be rotated on shuttle
Tim Kopra (CO-prah)
Mission Specialist-5/Expedition 20 Flight Engineer
- Colonel, U.S. Army
- Launched to the station on STS-127, July 15
- Age: 45, Hometown: Austin, Texas
- Married with two children
- Returns to Earth on STS-128
Christer Fuglesang (FYU-gel-sang)
Mission Specialist-4 (European Space Agency)
- Veteran of one spaceflight
- Age: 52, Born: Stockholm, Sweden
- Married with three children
- Ph.D. in particle physics, 1991
- Enjoys sailing, frisbee and reading
 

SPACE SHUTTLE DISCOVERY (STS-128)
Discovery's flight will deliver supplies and equipment to the International Space Station. Inside the shuttle’s cargo bay is the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), a pressurized "moving van" that will be temporarily installed to the station. The module will deliver science and storage racks, a freezer to store research samples, a new sleeping compartment and the COLBERT treadmill. The 13-day mission will include three spacewalks to replace experiments outside the European Space Agency’s Columbus laboratory, and install a new ammonia storage tank and return the used one. Ammonia is used to move excess heat from inside the station to the radiators located outside. Discovery also will deliver a new crew member and bring back another after almost two months aboard the space station.

The patch represents the hardware, people and partner nations that contribute to the flight. Discovery is shown in the orbit configuration with the MPLM Leonardo in the payload bay. Earth and the space station wrap around the Astronaut Office symbol reminding us of the continuous human presence in space. The names of the crew border in an unfurled manner.

The banner also contains the U.S. and Swedish flags representing the countries of the STS-128 crew.

SPACEWALKS

Each will last approximately 6.5 hours.
•On flight day 5: Olivas and Stott will prepare for the replacement of an empty ammonia tank on the station’s port truss, or backbone, by releasing its bolts. They also will retrieve a materials processing experiment and a European science experiment mounted outside the Columbus laboratory and stow them in Discovery’s cargo bay for their return to Earth.
•On flight day 7: Olivas and Fuglesang will remove the new ammonia tank from the shuttle’s payload bay and replace it with the used tank on the station. The new tank, weighing about 1,800 pounds, is the most mass ever moved around by spacewalking astronauts during station assembly. After the new tank is installed, the old one will be stowed in the shuttle for its return to Earth.
•On flight day 9: Olivas and Fuglesang will deploy an attachment system that will be used to hang spare parts on the station's truss. They also will replace a device designed to help the station determine its position relative to the Earth and install a new circuit breaker. The spacewalkers will prepare for the arrival of the Tranquility node by attaching cables between the starboard truss and the Unity node, the area where Tranquility will be installed. Tranquility is targeted to arrive to the station on STS-130 in February 2010.

FACTS & FIGURES

•STS-128 is the 128th space shuttle flight, the 30th to the station, the 37th for Discovery and the fourth in 2009. Six flights to the station remain after STS-128 before the shuttles retire in 2010.
•The MPLM will carry 15,200 pounds of cargo. Using the station’s robotic arm, it will be installed to the station on flight day 4 and returned to the shuttle’s cargo bay on flight day 11 for its return to Earth.
•Inside the MPLM will be two new experiment racks – the materials science research rack-1 and the fluids integrated rack.
•The materials rack will allow the crews of the space station to conduct experiments on such diverse materials as metals, glasses, crystals and ceramics. They’ll be able to study how materials mix and solidify or how crystals grow, outside the confines of the Earth’s gravity.
•Colloids, gels, bubbles, boiling, and cooling are a few of the areas to be studied using the fluids rack.
•Discovery also will bring up a second Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS – or MELFI.
•MELFI will support a wide range of life science experiments by preserving biological samples (blood, saliva, urine, microbial or plant) collected on station for later return and analysis on Earth.
•The shuttle will carry a new crew quarters for the Harmony node and the Atmospheric Revitalization System, an air purification system for Tranquility. Both will be temporarily stowed in the Japanese segment.
•A new carbon dioxide scrubbing device will be integrated into the ARS. It will compliment the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly already on the station. Teams had to trouble shoot the CDRA on orbit in July after a failed heater prevented the system from operating automatically.
•STS-128 will fly the Combined Operational Load-Bearing External Resistance Treadmill, or COLBERT.
•NASA selected the treadmill's name after comedian and host Stephen Colbert of Comedy Central's "The Colbert Report" took interest during the Node 3 naming poll and urged his followers to post the name "Colbert," which received the most entries. The treadmill will be the second on the station.
•The astronauts on the station are expected to spend about 20 hours putting the COLBERT together.
COLBERT will reside first inside the Harmony module. Later, it will move into Tranquility.
•The STS-128 mission (as did STS-125 and STS-127) will take part in crew seat vibration tests that will help engineers on the ground understand how astronauts experience launch. They’ll then use the information to help design the crew seats that will be used in future NASA spacecraft.
On the heels of the completion of the Japanese segment of the International Space Station, the shuttle Discovery is poised to blast off on a 13-day mission to deliver more than 7 tons of supplies, science racks and equipment, as well as additional environmental hardware to sustain six crew members on the orbital outpost.
Led by veteran shuttle Commander Rick Sturckow (STUR-coe) (Col., USMC), 48, Discovery is set for launch no earlier than 1:36:02 a.m. EDT Aug. 25 from Launch Pad 39-A at the Kennedy Space Center. This will be Sturckow’s fourth flight into space. Kevin Ford (Col., USAF, ret.), 49, will serve as Discovery’s pilot in his first flight into space. Patrick Forrester (Col., USA, ret.), 52, is making
his third flight into space. The flight engineer for launch and landing is Jose Hernandez, 47. The son of an itinerant Mexican farming family, he did not learn English until he was 12 years old. Hernandez, on his first flight, will be involved in cargo transfer operations and the operation of the shuttle’s robotic arm. Lead spacewalker John “Danny” Olivas (oh-LEE-vuhs), 44, is making his second flight into space, having also flown with Sturckow on his previous mission. Olivas will participate in all three of the mission’s spacewalks. Christer Fuglesang (FYU-gel-sang) of the European Space Agency, 52, will conduct two spacewalks with Olivas in his second flight into space. They are joined by NASA’s Nicole Stott, 46, a former processing director for the shuttle Endeavour at the Kennedy Space Center, who replaces NASA astronaut Tim Kopra (CO-prah) (Col., USA), 46, as a long-duration crew member on the space station and a member of the Expedition 20 and 21 crews. Stott, who will conduct the mission's first spacewalk with Olivas, is scheduled to spend three months on the complex while Kopra returns home aboard Discovery. Stott plans to return in November on the shuttle Atlantis as part of the STS-129 crew. The day after launch, Ford, Forrester and Hernandez will take turns at Discovery’s aft flight deck as they maneuver the shuttle's robotic arm to reach over to the starboard sill of the orbiter to grapple the Orbiter Boom Sensor System, a 50-foot-long crane extension. The extension is equipped with sensors and lasers
that will be used in the traditional daylong scan of Discovery’s thermal protection heat shield and the reinforced carbon-carbon on the leading edges of the shuttle’s wings. This initial inspection of the heat shield will provide imagery experts on the ground a close-up look at the tiles and blankets on the shuttle’s skin to determine if the shuttle is ultimately safe to re-enter the Earth’s atmosphere. A follow-up inspection will take place after Discovery undocks from the station. While the inspection takes place, Olivas, Fuglesang and Stott will prepare the spacesuits they will wear for the three spacewalks to be conducted out of the Quest airlock at the station. Other predocking preparations will occupy the remainder of the crew’s workday. The following day, on the third day of the flight, Discovery will be flown by Sturckow and Ford on its approach for docking to the station. After a series of jet firings to fine-tune Discovery’s path to the complex, the shuttle will arrive at a point about 600 feet directly below the station about an hour before docking. At that time, Sturckow will execute a one-degree-per-second rotational “backflip” to enable Expedtion 20 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Mike Barratt, using digital cameras with 400 and 800 millimeter lenses, to snap hundreds of detailed photos of the shuttle’s heat shield and other areas of potential interest – another data point for imagery analysts to pore over in determining the health of the shuttle’s thermal protection system.

Once the rendezvous pitch maneuver is completed, Sturckow will fly Discovery to a point about 600 feet in front of the station before slowly closing in for a linkup to the forward docking port on the Harmony module. Less than two hours later, hatches will be opened between the two spacecraft to begin almost nine days of work between the two crews.
Discovery’s arrival at the station two days after launch will again place 13 crew members on the complex. The shuttle crew will join Padalka of Russia, and flight engineers Barratt and Kopra of NASA, Roman Romanenko of Russia, Bob Thirsk of the Canadian Space Agency and Frank De Winne of the European Space Agency.

Aside from the delivery of Stott to join the station crew, the primary objective of the flight will be the transfer of the science and environmental racks to the complex to mark a quantum leap in the scientific capability of the orbital laboratory. Housed for the ride to the station in the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module in Discovery’s payload bay are the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1), the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) and the Fluids Integration Rack (FIR). MSRR-1 will be used for basic materials research related to metals, alloys, polymers, semiconductors, ceramics, crystals and glasses in the microgravity environment. MELFI will be used for long-term storage of experiment samples that are to be returned to Earth for detailed analysis. The FIR is a fluid physics research facility designed to host investigations in areas such as colloids, gels, bubbles, wetting and capillary action, and phase changes, including boiling and cooling.

Leonardo, which serves as a large moving van for supplies and equipment back and forth from the station, also is carrying a new crew quarters to provide more sleeping space for the expanded station crew members and a new exercise device called the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill, or COLBERT, coined after late-night cable entertainment personality Stephen Colbert. COLBERT will be transferred to a temporary location in the Harmony node, but will ultimately reside in the new Node 3 module – Tranquility – that will be launched to the station in 2010 as a final connecting point for other modules on the U.S. segment of the complex, including the Cupola, a multi-windowed module to provide a vista-like view of the universe. COLBERT will not be checked out and activated until later this year. In addition to the new treadmill, also referred to as “T2,” the crew will transfer a new Air Revitalization System (ARS) rack to the station for use in Tranquility to maintain a pristine environment for the expanded six-person crew on the outpost. The system includes another carbon dioxide removal system bed similar to the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) that resides in the U.S. Destiny laboratory. The rack will be temporarily stowed in the Japanese segment of the station until Tranquility is in place to accept it on a permanent basis.

If the CDRA is operating when Discovery arrives at the station, the new ARS rack will be temporarily stowed in the Japanese Kibo module and not activated until it is installed in Tranquility next year. If a problem develops with the CDRA, however, the new rack could be temporarily installed in the Destiny lab in place of the current CDRA and activated to assist in the removal of carbon dioxide. Ford and Barratt will hoist Leonardo out of Discovery’s cargo bay using the station’s Canadarm2 robotic arm on the fourth day of the flight and will berth it to the Earth-facing port on the Harmony module. Once leak checks are performed, the hatch to Leonardo will be opened to mark the start of transfer operations that will be supervised by Fuglesang and Hernandez. Three spacewalks will be conducted on flight days 5, 7 and 9 during the docked phase of the mission.

The first spacewalk will see Olivas, who conducted two spacewalks on STS-117, and Stott venture outside to remove an empty ammonia tank from the port 1 (P1) truss of the station. The tank, which itself weighs about 1,800 pounds, contains 600 pounds of ammonia to provide the proper cooling for the thermal control system in the truss. Ammonia in the tank flows in the truss’ Pump Module Assembly, which is the heart of the thermal control system. Olivas will work in tandem with Stott to remove the used tank that will be grappled by the Canadarm2 through a fixed grapple bar. The grapple bar will be attached to the tank before it is parked on a cargo carrying platform in Discovery’s payload bay for the trip home. The tank that will be removed still will contain about 200 pounds of ammonia but is considered used and ready for replacement. Olivas and Stott also will remove two experiments from the hull of the European Columbus module during the first spacewalk. The European Technology Exposure Facility, or EuTEF, was installed during the STS-122 mission in February 2008. EuTEF is a suite of nine experiments designed to collect data during its lengthy stay in the microgravity environment. The spacewalkers also will remove a materials science experiment called Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), a device resembling an open suitcase that enables a variety of experiments to be exposed to the space environment. This latest in the series of MISSE experiments was moved to the outside of Columbus from a prior location on the station during the STS-123 mission in March 2008. Olivas will be joined by Fuglesang for the second spacewalk. Fuglesang conducted three spacewalks on his first mission, STS-116. This excursion will be exclusively devoted to installing a new Ammonia Tank Assembly on the P1 truss and stowing the empty tank on the cargo carrying platform in Discovery’s payload bay. Olivas and Fuglesang team up for the final spacewalk two days later to begin preparations for the arrival of the Tranquility connecting module, Node 3, and its Cupola viewing port scheduled for launch next year.

The spacewalkers will begin by completing a task that could not be accomplished during the STS-127 mission; i.e., the deployment of a payload attachment bracket on the starboard truss to which several critical spare parts will be attached during the STS-129 mission later this year. Next, Olivas and Fuglesang will route avionics systems cables from the S0 truss at the midpoint of the station’s backbone to the port side of the complex where Tranquility will be permanently attached. After that, they will rig cables for heaters that will keep the berthing port warm on the port side of the Unity connecting module to which Tranquility will be mated. They will replace a failed component on the S0 truss called a rate gyro assembly that works with the station’s Global Positioning System (GPS) hardware to tell the station what its orientation is in relation to the Earth, replace a faulty power control module on the S0 that is used to route electricity to various components inside the complex and install two new GPS antennas on the S0 truss.

On the following day, flight day 10, the crew will enjoy some off-duty time and complete transfer operations before closing the hatch to Leonardo on flight day 11 so it can be unberthed from Harmony and returned to Discovery’s payload bay. Ford and Hernandez will operate Canadarm2 from the robotics workstation on the station to demate Leonardo from its temporary parking spot and lower it onto latches in the shuttle’s cargo bay. Once the cargo module is berthed in Discovery, the two crews will say goodbye to one another and close the hatches between the shuttle and station to set the stage for undocking. With Ford at the controls on flight day 12, Discovery will separate from the station. He will slowly back the shuttle away to a distance of about 400 feet from the station. At that point, he will conduct a radial flyaround of the complex before firing jets to depart the vicinity of the outpost. With undocking complete, Ford, Forrester and Hernandez will use the shuttle’s robotic arm and its Orbiter Boom Sensor System extension to conduct a “late” inspection of the orbiter’s thermal heat shield – one more opportunity to ensure that it is in good shape to support landing. Sturckow, Ford and Hernandez will conduct the traditional checkout of the shuttle’s flight control systems and steering jets on flight day 13, setting Discovery up for its supersonic return to Earth on flight day 14. A special recumbent seat will be set up in the shuttle’s lower deck for Kopra to ease his reorientation to a gravity environment for the first time in almost two months. Finally, weather permitting, Sturckow and Ford will guide Discovery to a landing at the Kennedy Space Center on the evening of Sept. 6 to wrap up the 37th flight for the shuttle’s fleet leader, the 128th mission in shuttle program history and the 30th shuttle visit to the International Space Station.

TIMELINE OVERVIEW

Flight Day 1 - Launch • Payload Bay Door Opening - Ku-Band Antenna Deployment - Shuttle Robotic Arm Activation and payload bay survey - Umbilical Well and Handheld External Tank Photo and TV Downlink

Flight Day 2 - Discovery’s Thermal Protection System Survey with Shuttle Robotic Arm/Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) - Extravehicular Mobility Unit Checkout - Centerline Camera Installation - Orbiter Docking System Ring Extension - Orbital Maneuvering System Pod Survey - Rendezvous tools checkout

Flight Day 3 - Rendezvous with the International Space Station - Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver Photography of Discovery’s Thermal Protection System by Barratt and De Winne of the Expedition 20 Crew - Docking to Harmony/Pressurized Mating Adapter-2 - Hatch Opening and Welcoming - Stott and Kopra exchange Soyuz seatliners; Stott joins Expedition 20, Kopra joins the STS-128 crew

Flight Day 4 - Unberthing of the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) from Discovery’s cargo bay and installation on the Earth-facing port of the Harmony node - Leonardo systems activation and hatch opening - Spacewalk 1 Procedure Review - Spacewalk 1 Campout in Quest airlock by Olivas and Stott

Flight Day 5 - Spacewalk 1 by Olivas and Stott (Preparation of P1 Truss Ammonia Tank Assembly for removal, EuTEF and MISSE experiment removal from the Columbus module) - Rack transfers from Leonardo to the station; transfer of the COLBERT treadmill from Leonardo to the space station

Flight Day 6 - Focused inspection of Discovery’s thermal heat shield by the shuttle robotic arm/OBSS, if necessary - Rack and cargo transfers from Leonardo to the station - Spacewalk 2 Procedure Review - Spacewalk 2 Campout in Quest airlock by Olivas and Fuglesang

Flight Day 7 - Spacewalk 2 by Olivas and Fuglesang (Completion of Ammonia Tank Assembly swapout on P1 truss) - Cargo transfer from Leonardo to space station

Flight Day 8 - Crew off-duty time - Joint Crew News Conference - Cargo transfer from Leonardo to the station - Spacewalk 3 Procedure Review - Spacewalk 3 Campout in Quest airlock by Olivas and Fuglesang

Flight Day 9 - Spacewalk 3 by Olivas and Fuglesang (Routing avionics cables for Tranquility Node 3 installation, replacement of Rate Gyro Assembly on the S0 truss, installation of two GPS antennas on the S0 truss) - Cargo transfer from Leonardo to the station

Flight Day 10 - Cargo transfer from Leonardo to the station - Crew off-duty time

Flight Day 11 - Final transfers - Leonardo egress and systems deactivation - Leonardo demating from Earth-facing port on Harmony node and berthing back in Discovery’s cargo bay - Farewells and Hatch Closure - Rendezvous tools checkout

Flight Day 12 - Discovery undocking from station - Flyaround of station and final separation - Late inspection of Discovery’s thermal protection system with the OBSS

Flight Day 13 - Flight Control System Checkout - Reaction Control System hot-fire test - Crew Deorbit Briefing - Cabin Stowage - Recumbent Seat Setup for Kopra

Flight Day 14 - Deorbit preparations - Payload Bay Door closing - Deorbit burn - KSC Landing

MISSION PROFILE

CREW
Commander: Rick Sturckow
Pilot: Kevin Ford
Mission Specialist 1: Patrick Forrester
Mission Specialist 2: Jose Hernandez
Mission Specialist 3: Danny Olivas
Mission Specialist 4: Christer Fuglesang
Mission Specialist 5: Nicole Stott (Up)
Mission Specialist 5: Tim Kopra (Down)

LAUNCH
Orbiter: Discovery (OV-103)
Launch Site: Kennedy Space Center Launch Pad 39A
Launch Date: No Earlier Than Aug. 25, 2009
Launch Time: 1:36:02 a.m. EDT (Preferred In-Plane launch time for 8/25)
Launch Window: 3 minutes
Altitude: 122 Nautical Miles (140 Miles) Orbital Insertion; 188 NM (213 Miles) Rendezvous Inclination: 51.6 Degrees
Duration: 12 Days 19 Hours 04 Minutes

VEHICLE DATA
Shuttle Liftoff Weight: 4,522,852pounds
Orbiter/Payload Liftoff Weight: 267,689 pounds
Orbiter/Payload Landing Weight: 225,860 pounds
Software Version: OI-34
Space Shuttle Main Engines:
SSME 1: 2052
SSME 2: 2051
SSME 3: 2047
External Tank: ET-132
SRB Set: BI-139
RSRM Set: 107

SHUTTLE ABORTS
Abort Landing Sites RTLS: Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility TAL: Primary – Zaragoza, Spain. Alternates – Moron, Spain and Istres, France AOA: Primary – Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility. Alternate – White Sands Space Harbor Landing Date: No Earlier Than Sept. 6, 2009 Landing Time: 8:40 p.m. EDT Primary landing Site: Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility

PAYLOADS

Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), Leonardo; Lightweight Multi-Purpose Carrier (LMC) with Ammonia Tank Assembly (ATA)


MISSION OBJECTIVES

MAJOR OBJECTIVES
1. Dock Discovery to the International Space Station’s Pressurized Mating Adaptor-2 port and perform mandatory crew safety briefing for all crew members.
2. Berth Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) to the station’s nadir port on the Harmony module using the station robotic arm, activate and check out MPLM.
3. Transfer mandatory quantities of water from Discovery to the space station.
4. Rotate Expedition 20 crew member Tim Kopra with Expedition 20/21 Flight Engineer Nicole Stott, transfer mandatory crew rotation equipment and perform mandatory tasks consisting of customized seatliner install and Sokol suit checkout.
5. Transfer and install Node 3 Air Revitalization System (ARS) rack.
6. Transfer Treadmill-2 (T2) rack and associated system components to the station and temporarily install in interim rack location.
7. Transfer and stow critical items.
8. Transfer and install remaining MPLM racks to the space station. − Deck Crew Quarters − Minus Eighty-Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS-2 (MELFI-2)
− Fluids Integration Rack (FIR) − Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR)
9. Transfer, remove, and replace Ammonia Tank Assembly (ATA) from the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure (MPESS) Carrier (LMC) to the P1 site using the station robotic arm.
10. Return empty P1 ATA to the LMC using the station robotic arm.
11. Return MPLM to Discovery’s payload bay using the station robotic arm.
12. Transfer European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF)/Flight Support Equipment (FSE) Integrated Assembly (IA) from the station’s Columbus Exposed Payload Facility (EPF) to the LMC using the station robotic arm.
13. Perform minimum crew handover of 12 hours per rotating crew member including crew safety handover.
14. Transfer Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 6a and 6b Passive Experiment Containers from the station’s Columbus EPF to the Discovery’s cargo bay using the station robotic arm.
15. Transfer remaining cargo items.
16. Remove and replace the S0 Rate Gyro Assembly (RGA).
17. Perform additional Node 3 (Tranquility) prep tasks. − Pre-route external channel 1/4 power and data cable and channel 2/3 power and data cables from S0 panel across Destiny to (Node 1) Unity. − Temporarily connect Node 1 port/PMA3 heater umbilical and install grounding on Node 1 nadir launch-to-activation connector. − Remove and replace RPCM S0-1A-D. − Remove Node 1 slidewire. − Reposition Zarya LAN connector on Node 1 port.
18. Perform Hydrogen ORU Calibration Kit (HOCK) verification on the OGS pressure sensor. 19. Perform daily station payload status checks as required.
20. Perform daily middeck activities to support payloads.
21. Perform station payload research operations tasks.
22. Remove MPLM Baseplate Ballast Assemblies (BBAs) and Lamp Housing Assemblies (LHAs) and transfer to the space station. If required, install the failed space station BBAs/LHAs back into MPLM.
23. Perform crew quarters outfitting and activation as required to support minimal crew habitation.
24. Perform TriDAR Automated Rendezvous and Docking Sensor DTO-701A activities.
25. Perform an additional four hours per rotating crew member of station crew handover (16 hours per crew member total).
26. The following spacewalk tasks are deemed to fit within the existing timelines; however, they may be deferred if the spacewalk is behind schedule. The spacewalk will not be extended to complete these tasks. − Install Global Positioning System AA No. 2 and No. 4 on S0 − Install Node 1 micrometeoroid orbital debris shield − Install the station arm camera lens cover on Latching End Effector B wrist camera
27. Transfer oxygen from Discovery to the station airlock high-pressure gas tanks.
28. Perform water sampling for return for ground testing.
29. Perform program-approved intravehicular activity get-ahead tasks. The following intravehicular activity get-ahead tasks do not fit in the existing timelines; however, the team will be trained and ready to perform should the opportunity arise. − Complete remainder of crew quarters outfitting and activation as required to support full crew habitation − Perform Node 1 port bulkhead feed-through modifications (for 20A) − Potable Water (J33) − Waste Water (J30) − ARS Air Sample (J40) − Nitrogen (J44) − Oxygen (J45) − Perform coarse leaks checks of Node 1 port bulkhead feed-throughs using PMA-3 partial depressurization.
30. Perform program-approved spacewalk get-ahead tasks. The following get-ahead tasks do not fit in the existing spacewalk timelines; however, the spacewalk team will be trained and ready to perform should the opportunity arise. − Tuck down Lab/Node 2 cables. − Install a gap spanner on Node 2. − Relocate Fixed Grapple Bar in preparation of 19A ATA R&R. − Install Bootie/Grounding Connector Sleeves (launch in 17A MPLM). − Install station arm camera lens cover on station arm’s elbow camera.
31. Perform payload of opportunity operations to support Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust Experiments, Maui Analysis of Upper Atmospheric Injections (MAUI) and Shuttle Exhaust Ion Turbulence Experiments (SEITE).
32. Reboost the space station with the shuttle if mission resources allow and are consistent with station trajectory analysis and planning.
33. Perform imagery survey of the station exterior during orbiter flyaround after undock.
34. Perform SDTO 13005-U, ISS Structural Life Validation and Extension, during shuttle mated reboost.
35. Perform SDTO 13005-U, ISS Structural Life Validation and Extension, during 17A shuttle undocking, if crew time available.
36. Perform SDTO 13005-U, ISS Structural Life Validation and Extension for MPLM Berthing and Unberthing.



The STS-128 patch symbolizes the 17A mission and represents the hardware, people and partner nations that contribute to the flight. The space shuttle Discovery is shown in the orbit configuration with the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo in the payload bay. Earth and the International Space Station wrap around the Astronaut Office symbol reminding us of the continuous human presence in space. The names of the STS-128
crew members border the patch in an unfurled manner. Included in the names is the expedition crew member who will launch on STS-128 and remain on board the station, replacing another Expedition crew member who will return home with STS-128. The banner also completes the Astronaut Office symbol and contains the U.S. and Swedish flags representing the countries of the STS-128 crew.

PAYLOAD OVERVIEW

The space shuttle payload will include the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the Lightweight Multi-Purpose Experiment Support Structure Carrier (LMC). The total payload weight, not counting the middeck, is 31,694 pounds. The expected return weight is 19,053 pounds.
On the middeck of the space shuttle, it will carry GLACIER, a freezer designed to provide cryogenic transportation and preservation capability for samples. The unit is a double locker equivalent unit capable of transport and operation in the middeck and in-orbit operation in the EXPRESS Rack.

The space shuttle will carry on its middeck (ascent) the following items: GLACIER (Sortie) with refrigerated samples, NLP-Vaccine (Sortie), MDS & Support HDW, HRP Integrated Immune (SDBI 1900), HRP Sleep Short (SDBI 1634) and Sleep Long, JAXA Area Dosimeter (PADLES3), JAXA Space Seed, JAXA Payload Maintenance, JAXA Rad Silk Refrigerated Samples, ESA-CARD, and ESA
SOLO. On its return, among the items carried on the middeck will be GLACIER (Sortie) with frozen samples, NLP-Vaccine (Sortie), ESA 3D-Space, Integrated Immune, Lada-VPU P3R root modules and frozen plant samples, HRP ISSMP frozen samples, JAXA Area Dosimeter (PADLES2), JAXA RAD Silk & Microbe refrigerated and frozen samples, and a double coldbag with refrigerated samples.

LEONARDO MULTI-PURPOSE LOGISTICS MODULE (MPLM) FLIGHT MODULE 1 (FM1)
The Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) is one of three differently named large, reusable pressurized elements, carried in the space shuttle’s cargo bay, used to ferry cargo back and forth to the station. The STS-128 flight will be the second to the last time that Flight Module 1 (FM1) will be launched in its full configuration. After STS-128, FM1 will
be modified to remove hardware to reduce the weight of the module so that more hardware can be launched on STS-131/Flight 19A. The cylindrical module includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution and computers when it is attached to the station. The cylindrical logistics module acts as a “moving van” for the space station, carrying cargo, experiments and supplies for delivery to support the six-person crew on board the station, and to return spent materials, trash and

unneeded hardware to Earth. The MPLM is designed to fit in the space shuttle cargo bay and can take up six bays. Each module is approximately 21 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. On the STS-128 mission, Leonardo will carry two research racks, four station system racks, seven Resupply Stowage Platforms (RSPs), two Resupply Stowage Racks (RSRs), one Zero Stowage Rack (ZSR) and one Integrated Stowage Platform (ISP) and will include Aft Cone Stowage (first used on STS-126/ Flight Utilization Logistics Flight 2 on Nov. 14, 2008). The aft cone modification allows 12 additional cargo bags which are similar to the size of carry-on suitcases. In the aft endcone, additional Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) canisters, which support the station’s Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS), additional Remote Power Control Modules (RPCM), which support the Electrical Power System (EPS), as well as food containers and other hardware to support the crew will be flown. In addition, the sixth set of Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) labeled 6a and 6b will be removed by the spacewalk crew from Columbus and transferred into the MPLM for return to Earth. MISSE is a series of experiments mounted externally on the station that investigate the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the harsh space environment. MISSE 6a and 6b
were launched by space shuttle Endeavour during mission STS-123 on March 13, 2008, and contained more than 400 specimens of various materials. The two research racks carried in Leonardo are: Fluid Integrated Rack (FIR) and Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR). The four station system racks are: Crew Quarters (CQ), Minus Eighty-Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS-2 (MELFI-2), Node 3 Air Revitalization System Rack (ARS), and Treadmill 2, which was renamed Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill or COLBERT for short by NASA. The following are more detailed descriptions on each of these racks:
Crew Quarters (CQ) The crew quarters delivered on STS-128/17A will be installed in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressurized module. Two crew quarters are already installed in Node 2 and able to accommodate two crew members. The CQ provides private crew member space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, controllable airflow, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack-sized CQ is a system with multiple crew member restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crew member to personalize their CQ workspace.
Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a complementary fluid physics research facility designed to host investigations in areas such as colloids, gels, bubbles, wetting and capillary action, and phase changes including boiling and cooling. Fluids under microgravity conditions perform differently than those on Earth. Understanding how fluids react in these conditions will lead to improved designs on fuel tanks, water systems and other fluid-based systems. The FIR features a large user-configurable volume for experiments. The volume resembles a laboratory optics bench. An experiment can be built up on the bench from components, or it can be attached as a self-contained package, or a combination. The FIR provides data acquisition and control, sensor interfaces, laser and white light sources, advanced imaging capabilities, power, cooling, and other resources. Astronauts can quickly mount and set up the experiment with final operations accomplished by remote control from the NASA Glenn Research Center’s Telescience Support Center (TSC) in Cleveland or from the principal investigator home institution. The FIR offers the crew members easy access to the back of the optics bench for maintenance and experiment reconfiguration.

Materials Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) The Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) will be used for basic materials research in the microgravity environment of the station. MSRR-1 can accommodate and support diverse Experiment Modules (EMs). In this way many material types, such as metals, alloys, polymers, semiconductors, ceramics, crystals, and glasses, can be studied to discover new applications for existing
materials and new or improved materials. Initially, the MSRR-1 will house the European Space Agency-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) and the Low Gradient Furnace (LFG). Sample cartridge assemblies will be inserted into the furnace and heated, then cooled down to resolidify the sample material free from the effects of gravity. MSRR-1 will be moved by the crew from the MPLM to its rack location in the Destiny laboratory.

Minus Eighty-Degree Laboratory Freezer 2 (MELFI-2) Minus Eighty-Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) is a European Space Agency-built, NASA-operated freezer that allows samples to be stored on the station at temperatures as low as -80 degrees centigrade. It comprises four independent dewars which can be set to operate at different temperatures. Each dewar
is a cylindrical vacuum-insulated 75-liter container and can accommodate samples of a variety of sizes and shapes. The total capacity of the unit is 300 liters. The first MELFI unit, FU-1, was flown to the station on STS-121, installed in the Destiny laboratory, and commissioned by Thomas Reiter. The MELFI was subsequently relocated to the “Kibo” Japanese Experiment Module. The second one will be installed in the U.S. laboratory.

Node 3 Air Revitalization System Rack (N3 ARS) The N3 ARS will provide a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) to remove carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere in the International Space Station. The rack also contains a Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS) that removes potentially
hazardous trace contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. The third element contained in the rack is called a Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA), which monitors the cabin atmosphere for major constituents (N2, O2, CO2, CH4, H2, and water vapor). The N3 ARS will be temporarily installed in the JEM pressurized module and eventually transferred to Node 3 when it arrives.

COMBINED OPERATIONAL LOAD BEARING EXTERNAL RESISTANCE TREADMILL (COLBERT)

Training for future exploration missions is a key goal for the International Space Station Program, and a new treadmill launching on STS-128 will help doctors determine just how important “training” is to humans on long-space journeys. That’s training as in exercise, and treadmill as in COLBERT, or the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill, so named for comedian Stephen Colbert of Comedy Central’s “The Colbert Report.” The COLBERT will be the second treadmill on the space station, adding to a complement of six
different exercise devices already in orbit that range from stationary bicycles to resistive exercise devices. First and foremost, the new treadmill is a critical countermeasure device that will be used to keep the international crew healthy while in orbit, and prepare them for return to Earth. In addition, the COLBERT will feature data collection devices that will allow doctors and scientists to evaluate how effective the treadmill exercise is in reducing the amount of bone and muscle density loss due to life without gravity. Data on treadmill speed, session duration and body load of each crew member’s exercise
session will help scientists understand spaceflight-induced physiological changes in the cardiovascular, muscle, bone and sensorimotor systems. The first experiment to use the COLBERT will be the Functional Task Test (FTT), a multidisciplinary study designed to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks for lunar and Mars operations. FTT’s principal investigator is Jacob Bloomberg of NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston. This is not the first treadmill on the station. Station residents currently are using the Treadmill with Vibration Isolation System (TVIS) that’s recessed in the floor of the Zvezda service module. Expedition 20 flight engineers Mike Barratt and Koichi Wakata just performed a complete overhaul of that treadmill to extend its life. Both treadmills will continue to be used, which will nearly double the availability of this critical work-out device for six-person crews. While the purpose and general functionality of TVIS and COLBERT will be the same, there are a couple of significant differences. First, the actual treadmill for COLBERT was purchased from Woodway USA, Waukesha, Wis., while TVIS was developed in-house at JSC. The COLBERT and supporting subsystems (power, cooling, etc.) will be housed in an International Standard Payloads Rack (ISPR). The entire assembly will be housed initially in the station’s Harmony module, then be moved to the Tranquility module after it is launched in early 2010. Tranquility is a pressurized module that will provide room for many of the space station’s
life support systems. Attached to the node is a cupola, which is a unique workstation with six windows on the sides and one on top. Second, the two use different methods to keep the vibrations generated by runners from shaking the sensitive microgravity experiments on the station. TVIS uses an active system of throw masses that sense running forces and “throw” a counterweight in the opposite direction to counteract the vibrations. TVIS also uses some light tethers and a gyroscope. COLBERT was designed to be heavy, so that its inertial mass will be the primary method for dampening the vibrations. The total weight of the COLBERT rack is 2,200 pounds fully configured in orbit. Launch weight is around 1,600 pounds. Individual treadmill weighs about 300 pounds. The entire rack will have a modified Passive Rack Isolation System (PaRIS) that uses two-stage isolators, or springs, to dampen different vibration frequencies. The main reasons for the different approach were to simplify the system, making it easier and less costly to maintain. The simpler design also is expected to result in higher reliability, making the new treadmill consistently available to the crew, which must work out daily to counteract the loss of bone and muscle density that is a side effect of long-duration stays in orbit. If all goes as expected, the COLBERT will have a five-year service life. There are a number of COLBERT and TVIS similarities. Both have running surfaces made of aluminum. The COLBERT treadmill surface uses the exact same aluminum as a commercial treadmill, but a rubber coating is stripped off the top of the treads and that aluminum is anodized to provide surface roughness and protection.


Both treadmills meet the payload requirements for vibration isolation. COLBERT and TVIS are very close in most frequencies, but each is able to dampen some frequencies better than the other. COLBERT’s maximum speed is 12.4 miles an hour, but don’t expect crew members to run that fast because 12.4 miles an hour is faster than the Olympic 100-meter race record. An average person runs 7- to- 8 miles an hour, and most crew members will run about 4- to- 8 miles an hour. Another improvement is that COLBERT is designed so that ground experts tracking crew health in orbit can create individual exercise prescriptions and uplink them to the crew as a profile. COLBERT will use the same control interface as that used for the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) so that crew members won’t have to learn a new interface. The interface is modeled on commercial treadmills and looks nearly identical to what you’d find in many gyms on Earth. The standard rack connection device, the same seat tracks used in Boeing airliners, will provide locations where the crew can mount devices such as laptop computers so they can entertain themselves while exercising. Each crew member is required to work out a total of two and a half hours a day, about an hour of that on the treadmill. Astronauts are expected to burn between 250 and 500 calories while working out on COLBERT, which has instrumented load cells and three-axis accelerometers that can measure the foot force of running. Ground experts will be able to use this information to determine how well they are being conditioned or losing their deconditioning, and adjust exercise prescriptions accordingly.
Setting up for an exercise session on COLBERT should be fairly simple. The first runner of the day will turn it on by flipping the rack power switch. After waiting a couple minutes for all systems to activate, they’ll position the control interface to a location comfortable for them. They’ll connect bungee cords to provide a load that will generate the foot force necessary to give the astronaut’s bones and muscles a workout in the absence of gravity. They’ll put on the harness that connects them to the bungees, set the desired load and verify that they agree with their prescription. Then, they’ll log into the system, pick a profile, hit start and go. In the future, a new load system being developed by the European Space Agency will provide highly accurate, continuous force that’s closer to a full one-gravity body weight. The two treadmills provide side benefits for the entire crew, because as humans exercise they respire (breathe) and perspire (sweat) and that moisture is reclaimed by the station’s systems that recycle moisture from the station’s atmosphere. NASA chose the acronym COLBERT after the television comedian’s campaign for write-in votes to name the next module after himself. NASA chose to name the module Tranquility instead, in honor of the 40th anniversary of the first Apollo landing on the moon. Expedition 14 and 15 astronaut Suni Williams made the announcement on “The Colbert Report” two years after running the Boston Marathon in space. The COLBERT rack, treadmill and support hardware will launch in the Leonardo Multi-purpose Logistics Module and be transferred to the station on flight day 5. The new workout machine will be set up and used after the shuttle Discovery departs.

SPACEWALKS

There are three spacewalks scheduled for the STS-128 mission. Mission Specialists John “Danny” Olivas, Christer Fuglesang and Nicole Stott will spend a combined total of 19.5 hours outside the station on flight days 5, 7 and 9. Olivas, the lead spacewalker for the mission, will suit up for all three spacewalks in a spacesuit marked with solid red stripes. He is a veteran spacewalker with two extravehicular activities,
or EVAs, performed during the STS-117 mission in 2007. European Space Agency astronaut Fuglesang will be participating in the second and third spacewalks, adding to the more than 18 hours of spacewalking time that he built up over three EVAs during the STS-116 mission in 2006. He will wear an all white spacesuit.


Stott, who will be staying behind as a station crew member, whose first spacewalk will also be the first of the mission, will wear a spacesuit with broken red stripes. On each EVA day, a spacewalker inside the station will act as the intravehicular officer, or spacewalk choreographer. The first and second spacewalks will require at least two crew members inside the station or shuttle to be at the controls of the station’s 58-foot-long robotic arm to carry and maneuver equipment and spacewalkers. Preparations will start the night before each spacewalk, when the astronauts spend time in the station’s Quest Airlock. This practice is called the campout prebreathe protocol and is used to purge nitrogen from the spacewalkers’ systems and prevent decompression sickness, also known as “the bends.” During the campout, the two astronauts performing the spacewalk will isolate themselves inside the airlock while the air pressure is lowered to 10.2 pounds per square inch, or psi. The station is kept at the near-sea-level pressure of 14.7 psi. The morning of the spacewalk, the astronauts will wear oxygen masks while the airlock’s pressure is raised back to 14.7 psi for an hour and the hatch between the airlock and the rest of the station is opened. That allows the spacewalkers to perform their morning routines before returning to the airlock, where the air pressure is lowered again. Approximately 50 minutes after the spacewalkers don their spacesuits, the prebreathe protocol will be complete.
The procedure enables spacewalks to begin earlier in the crew’s day than was possible before the protocol was adopted.

SPACEWALKS

EVA-1
Duration: 6 hours, 30 minutes
Crew: Olivas and Stott
IV Crew: Forrester
Robotic Arm Operators: Ford and Thirsk
EVA Operations - Old ammonia tank assembly removal - EuTEF removal - MISSE 6 removal The work to replace the ammonia tank assembly on the first port segment of the station’s truss – P1 – will begin on the first spacewalk of the mission. Olivas and Stott will be removing the depleted tank from the truss, so that it may be picked up by the station’s robotic arm for storage until after the second spacewalk. To remove it from the station’s truss, Olivas and Stott will disconnect two lines used to transfer its ammonia, two lines which provide nitrogen for pressurization, and two electrical connections and release four bolts. They’ll then work together to lift the tank away from the truss and maneuver it into position for the robotic arm to latch onto.


EVA-2

Duration: 6 hours, 30 minutes
Crew: Olivas and Fuglesang
IV Crew: Forrester
Robotic Arm Operators: Ford and Stott
EVA Operations - New ammonia tank assembly installation - Old ammonia tank assembly storage The entire second spacewalk of the mission will focus on completing the ammonia tank
assembly swap. Olivas will begin by removing insulation on the new ammonia tank while Fuglesang gets into position in the robotic arm’s foot restraint. He and Olivas will then work together to release the four bolts securing the assembly to the cargo carrier inside the shuttle’s cargo bay. Ford and Stott will then drive the robotic arm – carrying Fuglesang and both ammonia tanks – to the installation site on the P1 truss segment. Olivas will meet Fuglesang there, and together they’ll drive the four bolts that will hold it in place. Olivas will then connect two electrical cables and four fluid lines.

With the new tank assembly installed, Olivas and Fuglesang will prepare for the storage of the old tank assembly, still latched to the robotic arm. Olivas will tether the old tank assembly to himself and then give Ford and Stott the OK to command the robotic arm to release it. Then Fuglesang will attach his tether to the assembly and Olivas will remove his tether, allowing Fuglesang and the old tank to make their way back to the shuttle’s cargo bay via robotic arm. Once there, Olivas and Fuglesang will install it on the cargo carrier with four bolts.

EVA-3
Duration: 6 hours, 30 minutes
Crew: Olivas and Fuglesang
IV Crew: Forrester
Robotic Arm Operators: None
EVA Operations: - S3 upper, outboard payload attachment system deploy - S0 rate gyro assembly replacement - S0 remote power control module replacement - Pressurized mating adapter 3 heater cable connection - Tranquility node avionics cable routing - Unity node slidewire removal - Robotic arm camera and light assembly insulation installation

The first tasks of the final spacewalk of the mission will finish work left by the previous space shuttle mission. The STS-127 spacewalkers completed the deployment of the one cargo attachment system on the P1 truss segment, but had to leave the set up of similar systems on S3 for future missions. On STS-119 a jammed detent pin on the first of the systems prevented them from deploying the P1 system. A special tool was built to assist with the deployment. The STS-127 spacewalkers were successful in clearing the jam. Olivas and Fuglesang will have the same tool on hand for use if needed. If the detent pin does not jam, however, the cargo attachment system will be set up by removing brackets and pins holding it in place, moving it into its correct position and then reinstalling the brackets and pins. Once that’s complete, Olivas and Fuglesang will work together to remove and replace a failed rate gyro assembly in the center of the station’s truss. To remove the failed assembly, Olivas will disconnect two cables and remove two bolts. Fuglesang will remove the final two holding the assembly in place, and then Olivas will remove it and temporarily store it nearby. To install the new one, Olivas and Fuglesang will each drive four bolts, and Olivas will then connect its two cables before moving on to the next task. At this point in the spacewalk, Olivas and Fuglesang will split up. Olivas will set up heater cables that will be used to keep the PMA 3 berthing port between the Unity and the coming Tranquility node warm so it can be pressurized. This will allow the station crew to prepare the vestibule for Tranquility node’s arrival. That will involve disconnecting four
cables and wire-tying them into place along a handrails on the Unity node. One of them will be connected to an outlet on Unity, the rest will have caps installed on them. Meanwhile, Fuglesang will replace a failed remote power control module on the center segment of the station’s truss. To remove the failed module, he’ll simply release one bolt. To install the new unit, he’ll slide it into place on a guide rail and then secure it using one bolt. He’ll follow that up by installing an insulation sleeve on a cable inside the truss.

With those tasks done, Fuglesang and Olivas will come together again in the center of the truss to route avionics systems cables. They’ll be using wire ties to secure two cable bundles to handrails along the truss system and the Unity node, and then a panel on the truss. Olivas will wrap up the spacewalk by removing a damaged slidewire from a stanchion on Unity, while Fuglesang installs a lens cover on a camera and light assembly on the space station’s robotic arm.

EXPERIMENTS

The space shuttle and International Space Station have an integrated research program that optimizes the use of shuttle crew members and long-duration space station crew members to address research questions in a variety of disciplines. For information on science on the station, visit:
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/index.html
http://iss-science.jsc.nasa.gov/index.cfm
Detailed information is located at: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiment...


DETAILED TEST OBJECTIVES AND DETAILED SUPPLEMENTARY OBJECTIVES Detailed Test Objectives (DTOs) are aimed at testing, evaluating, documenting systems or hardware, and proposing improvements to hardware, systems, and operations. Many of the DTOs on this mission are to provide additional information for engineers working for the Constellation Program as they develop requirements for the rocket and crew module that will return humans to the moon. For this test, accelerometers are being placed on crew seats in the orbiter to gather information on the seat vibration environment during launch. This DTO is being done in conjunction with another test that will measure crew visual performance during launch to help determine how the design of the Orion crew displays might be improved. Three crew seats -- the same seats that were instrumented for the test on STS-119 in March 2009 and STS-125 in May 2009 -- will be instrumented for this flight. During ascent, this DTO will measure the vibration of shuttle flight deck seat three and middeck seats five and six. Each seat will have a total of three triaxial accelerometers, each placed on the seat pan, the backrest, and the headrest. Although the Seat DTO data alone are important in terms of providing a measure of vibration, human performance data are required to fully interpret the operational impact of the vibration values collected. These human factors data will be provided by the Visual Performance test that has been designed for participation of the shuttle middeck crew members in seats five, six and seven over the course of two flights (STS-119 and STS-128). Participating crew members will be requested to view a placard attached with Velcro to the middeck lockers directly in front of them. The placard will depict a representative Orion display format in each of four quadrants (i.e., four numbered display formats per placard). Each display format will depict a different effective font size, for a total of four tested font sizes. There will also be displays containing different color schemes. Crew members will indicate using a response card included in their kneeboard or flight notebook, by which quadrant had the minimum readable font size, and to rate the readability of the various display schemes, during the launch phase of the flight. Once vibration has subsided, after solid rocket booster separation and before main engine cut-off, the crew members will respond to a brief questionnaire. A post-flight debrief will be held with crew members to elaborate on their experience. When practical within mission constraints, a video camera will record the motion of the middeck crew for correlation with seat vibration. For additional information, follow this link:

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/science/experiment...

DTO 696 Grab Sample Container (GSC) Redesign for Shuttle
Successfully sustaining life in space requires closely monitoring the environment to ensure the health and performance of the crew. Astronauts can be more sensitive to air pollutants because of the closed environment, and the health effects of pollutants are magnified in space exploration because the astronauts’ exposure is continuous. One hazard is the off-gassing of vapors from plastics and other inorganic materials aboard the vehicle. To monitor air contaminant levels, crew members use devices called grab sample canisters. The containers to be flown on this mission have been redesigned so that they
minimize overall size and volume. Three of the new GSCs will fit into the packing volume previously needed for one GSC. The smaller GSCs will also be used on the space station and evaluated during this mission.

DTO 701A TriDAR Sensor (Triangulation and LIDAR Automated Rendezvous and Docking)
The TriDAR Sensor is a 3D autonomous rendezvous and docking system that will be integrated into the space shuttle orbiter to demonstrate that technology in low Earth orbit. The complete vision system will incorporate scanning laser ranging and imaging capability, along with software to perform real-time tracking and six degrees of freedom pose calculation, to allow spacecraft rendezvous and docking without typical target markers. Future applications include using TriDAR for multifunction sensor robotic operations, potentially assisting with lander guidance, rover navigation, vehicle inspection, and exploration science. Such flexible capability in a single sensor will be critical in future exploration missions where size, weight, and power limits are small. Developed by Canada’s Neptec Design Company, TriDAR is a dual sensing, multi-purpose scanner capable of full pose – six degrees of freedom – and sensors for long range rendezvous, vehicle inspection and hazard avoidance. It is a hybrid scanner combining features of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System Laser Camera System with a long-range Time of Flight or LIDAR system. Unlike pure LIDAR system, the TriDAR operates at distances ranging from 0.5 meters to more than 2,000 meters.

TriDAR uses its random access capability to rapidly acquire 3D data. Model-based tracking algorithms then calculate the six degrees of freedom relative pose of the target spacecraft from the acquired data in real-time. The system relies only on the vehicle’s geometry and does not require cooperative target. The sensor can also perform high-resolution inspection scans or low-resolution range and bearing determination. Triangulation is typically used for high-resolution virtualization of objects for a variety of purposes including video games, movies, reverse engineering, inspection, archiving of historic artifacts. LIDARs are most often used for airborne or ground-based imaging such as geological surveys, forestry, urban planning, and automatic target recognition.

DTO 854 Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment Tested successfully in arc jet facilities, the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) flight experiment will gather information on the effect of high Mach number boundary layer transition caused by a protuberance on the space shuttle during the re-entry trajectory. The experiment is designed to demonstrate that a protuberance on an orbiter BRI-18 tile is safe to fly. BRI-18 is a tile originally developed as a potential heat shield upgrade on the orbiters and is now being considered for use on the Orion crew exploration vehicles. Due to Orion’s geometry, the tiles could experience re-entry heating temperatures up to 3,400 degrees Fahrenheit, about 500 degrees higher than the 2,900 degrees experienced by an orbiter during re-entry.

STS-128 will be the second phase of the flight experiment. The BLT flight experiment on STS-119, which flew in March 2009, provided temperature data on a 0.25-inch protuberance near Mach 16. That information is still being assessed. The goal for STS-128 is to gather data on a 0.35-inch protuberance at Mach 18 speed. Boundary layer transition is a disruption of the smooth, laminar flow of supersonic air across the shuttle’s belly and occurs normally when the shuttle’s velocity has dropped to around 8 to 10 times the speed of sound, starting toward the back of the heat shield and moving forward. Known as “tripping the boundary layer,” this phenomenon can create eddies of turbulence that, in turn, result in higher downstream heating. For the experiment, a heat shield tile with a “speed bump” on it was installed under Discovery’s left wing to intentionally disturb the airflow in a controlled manner and make the airflow turbulent. The bump is four inches long and 0.3-inch wide. Ten thermocouples will be installed on the tile with the protuberance and on tiles downstream to capture test data. The experiment will receive additional support from a U.S. Navy aircraft that will check the orbiter’s exterior temperatures. A Navy NP-3D Orion will fly below Discovery during re-entry and use a long-range infrared camera to remotely monitor heating to the shuttle’s lower surface. The imagery captured and recorded will complement the information collected by the onboard instruments. Both will be used to verify and improve design efforts for future spacecraft.

Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) (Not a DTO but associated with the BLT flight experiment) Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) will take advantage of the shuttle BLT flight experiment on STS-128 to continue a study of heating patterns of the space shuttle on re-entry. Temperature increases from a protuberance purposely placed on the orbiter’s lower left (port) wing will be imaged by the HYTHIRM team with the help of a U.S. Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft. Equipped with a long-range infrared optical system called “Cast Glance,” the aircraft will fly 25 to 35 miles under Discovery as it returns to Earth at speeds 18 times the speed of a bullet. The Cast Glance system, as used during STS-119 and STS-125, will remotely monitor and record heating to the shuttle’s lower surface using a long-range infrared camera. HYTHIRM imagery will provide ancillary flight data to the BLT Detailed Test Objective by complementing its onboard instruments. Both sets of data will be used to verify and improve design efforts for future spacecraft. HYTHIRM is managed by NASA’s Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.

DTO 900 Solid Rocket Booster Thrust Oscillation The Space Shuttle Program is gathering data on five shuttle flights, beginning with STS-126, to gain a greater understanding of the pressure oscillation, or periodic variation, phenomena that regularly occurs within solid rocket motors. The pressure oscillation that is observed in solid rocket motors is similar to the hum made when blowing into a bottle. At 1.5 psi, or pounds per square inch, a pressure wave will move up and down the motor from the front to the rear, generating acoustic noise as well as physical loads in the structure. These data are necessary to help propulsion engineers confirm modeling techniques of pressure oscillations and the loads they create. As NASA engineers develop alternate propulsion designs for use in NASA, they will take advantage of current designs from which they can learn and measure. In an effort to obtain data to correlate pressure oscillation with the loads it can generate, the shuttle program is using two data systems to gather detailed information. Both systems are located on the top of the solid rocket motors inside the forward skirt. The Intelligent Pressure Transducer, or IPT, is a standalone pressure transducer with an internal data acquisition system that will record pressure data to an internal memory chip. The data will be downloaded to a computer after the booster has been recovered and returned to the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, Fla. This system has been used on numerous full-scale static test motors in Utah and will provide engineers with a common base to compare flight data to ground test data. The Enhanced Data Acquisition System, or EDAS, is a data acquisition system that will record pressure data from one of the Reusable Solid Rocket Booster Operational Pressure Transducers, or OPT, and from accelerometers and strain gages placed on the forward skirt walls. These data will provide engineers with time synchronized data that will allow them to determine the accelerations and loads that are transferred through the structure due to the pressure oscillation forces.

Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs) are space and life science investigations. Their purpose is to determine the extent of physiological deconditioning resulting from spaceflight, to test countermeasures to those changes and to characterize the space environment relative to crew health. DSO 640 Physiological Factors Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may lead to a disruption in the ability to walk and perform functional tasks during the initial reintroduction to gravity following prolonged spaceflight, and may cause significant impairments in performance of operational tasks immediately following landing. The objective of this study is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to changes in performance of a set of functional tasks that are representative of critical mission tasks for lunar and Mars operations. Astronauts will be tested on an integrated suite of functional and interdisciplinary physiological tests before and after short- and long-duration spaceflight. Using this strategy, the investigators will be
able to: 1) identify critical mission tasks that may be impacted by alterations in physiological responses; 2) map physiological changes to alterations in functional performance; and 3) design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems responsible for impaired functional performance. For more information, follow these links:

https://rlsda.jsc.nasa.gov/scripts/experiment/exper.cfm?exp_... https://rlsda.jsc.nasa.gov/docs/research/research_detail.cfm...

SHORT-DURATION RESEARCH AND STATION EXPERIMENTS The STS-128 space shuttle mission marks the start of the transition from assembling the International Space Station to using it for continuous scientific research. Assembly and maintenance activities have dominated the available time for crew work. But as completion of the orbiting laboratory nears, additional facilities and the crew members to operate them will enable a measured increase in time devoted to research as a national and multinational laboratory. Two major additions to the research facilities aboard the station – the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and the Fluids Integrated Rack – will be delivered by Discovery’s crew inside the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. A host of short-duration experiments investigating the causes of and potential solutions to the harmful effects of long-duration spaceflight on the human body, technology development work for future human space exploration and the physical and biological sciences are planned. In addition, a second treadmill, the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT), will provide medical researchers with new insight into the effectiveness of exercise as a countermeasure for bone and muscle density loss due to spaceflight. New Facilities Delivered by STS-128/17A Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) is used for basic materials research in the microgravity environment of the station. MSRR-1 can accommodate and support diverse Experiment Modules (EMs). In this way many material types, such as metals, alloys, polymers, semiconductors, ceramics, crystals, and glasses, can be studied to discover new applications for existing materials and new or improved materials The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a complementary fluid physics research facility designed to host investigations in areas such as colloids, gels, bubbles, wetting and capillary action, and phase changes, including boiling and cooling.

Short-Duration Research to Be Completed During STS-128/17A The space shuttle and International Space Station have an integrated research program that optimizes use of shuttle crew members and long-duration space station crew members in addressing research questions in a variety of disciplines.

Human Research and Countermeasure Development for Exploration Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure during Spaceflight – Short (Sleep-Short) examines the effects of spaceflight on the sleep-wake cycles of the astronauts during shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating insomnia on Earth and in space. (NASA)

Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crew Member Immune Function – Short Duration Biological Investigation (Integrated Immune-SDBI) assesses the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of space flight on the human immune system and will validate a flight-compatible immune monitoring strategy. Immune system changes will be monitored by collecting and analyzing blood, urine and saliva samples from crew members before, during and after spaceflight. (NASA)

Spinal Elongation and Its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment (Spinal Elongation) study provides quantitative data as to the amount of change that occurs in the seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity. (NASA)

Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance During Launch (Visual Performance) determines the visual performance limits during operational vibration and g-loads on the space shuttle, specifically through the determination of minimum readable font size during ascent using planned Orion display formats. (NASA)

National Lab Pathfinder-Vaccine-5 (NLP-Vaccine-5) is a commercial payload serving as a pathfinder for the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory after station assembly is complete. It contains several different pathogenic (disease causing) organisms. This research is investigating the use of spaceflight to develop potential vaccines for the prevention of different infections caused by these pathogens on Earth and in microgravity. (NASA)

Studies on Microbiota On Board the International Space Station and Their Relationship to Health Problem (Microbe-I) examines the microbial (bacteria and fungi) environment on board the International Space Station. This investigation uses samples from surfaces and air to determine the variety of microbes through culture analysis. (JAXA)

The Study of Lower Back Pain in Crew Members During Space Flight (Mus) will study the details on development of Low Back Pain (LBP) during flight in astronauts/ cosmonauts. According to biomechanical model, strain on the ilio-lumbar ligaments increases with backward tilt of the pelvis in conjunction with forward flexion of the spine. This is what astronauts may experience due to loss of curvature. The objective is to assess astronaut deep muscle corset atrophy in response to microgravity exposure. (ESA)

Technology Development Maui Analysis of Upper Atmospheric Injections (MAUI) observes the space shuttle engine exhaust plumes from the Maui Space Surveillance Site in Hawaii. As the shuttle flies over the Maui site, a telescope and all-sky imagers capture images and data when the shuttle engines fire at night or twilight. The
data collected is analyzed to determine the interaction between the spacecraft exhaust plume and the upper atmosphere. (NASA)
Shuttle Exhaust Ion Turbulence Experiments (SEITE) uses space-based sensors to detect the ionospheric turbulence inferred from the radar observation from a previous space shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) burn experiment using ground-based radar. (NASA)
The Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust Experiments (SIMPLEX) investigates plasma turbulence driven by rocket exhaust in the ionosphere using ground-based radars. (NASA)

New Facilities and Experiments Delivered by STS-128/17A Facilities Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) is used for basic materials research in the microgravity environment of the station. MSRR-1 can accommodate and support diverse Experiment Modules (EMs). In this way, many material types, such as metals, alloys, polymers, semiconductors, ceramics, crystals, and glasses, can be studied to discover new applications for existing materials and new or improved materials. The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a complementary fluid physics research facility designed to host investigations in areas such as colloids, gels, bubbles, wetting and capillary action, and phase changes including, boiling and cooling.

Human Research and Countermeasure Development for Exploration Neutron Field Study (RaDI-N) will characterize the neutron environment of the station to develop risk countermeasures for crew members living and working in space. (CSA)

Physical and Biological Sciences in Microgravity The Materials Science Laboratory – Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing and Microstructure Formation in Casting of Technical Alloys under Diffusive and Magnetically Controlled Convective Conditions (MSL-CETSOL and MICAST) are two investigations that support research into metallurgical solidification, semiconductor crystal growth (Bridgman and zone melting) and measurement of thermo-physical properties of materials. This is a cooperative investigation with the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for accommodation and operation aboard the International Space Station.

Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency investigation that will use a validated mouse model to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying bone mass loss in microgravity. Research conducted with the MDS is an analog to the Human Research Program, which has the objective to extend the human presence safely beyond low Earth orbit.

Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) consists of a remotely controlled microscope and a small, wickless heat pipe, or heat exchanger, operating on an evaporation/condensation cycle. The objective is to better understand the physics of evaporation and condensation as they affect
heat transfer processes in a heat exchanger designed for cooling critical, high heat output components in microgravity. (NASA) DEvice for the Study of Critical LIquids and Crystallization (DECLIC) is a multi-user facility consisting of three investigations, DECLIC – Alice Like Insert (DECLIC-ALI), DECLIC – High Temperature Insert (DECLIC-HTI) and DECLIC – Directional Solidification Insert (DECLIC-DSI) to study transparent media and their phase transitions in microgravity on board the station. (NASA/CNES)

Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument – Influence of Vibration on Diffusion of Liquids (SODI-IVIDIL) will study the influence of controlled vibration stimulus (slow shaking) on diffusion between different liquids in absence of convection induced by the gravity field. Such investigation will help scientists to model numerically this physical phenomenon. (ESA)

Life Cycle of Higher Plants under Microgravity Conditions (Space Seed) uses Arabidopsis thaliana to determine if the life cycle of this plant can be achieved in microgravity. Additionally, this study will examine the specific genes in the cell wall of the plant that do not activate in microgravity that normally activate in 1-g conditions. (JAXA)

Integrated Assessment of Long-term Cosmic Radiation Through Biological Responses of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, in Space (RadSilk) examines the effects of radiation exposure in microgravity on silkworms. (JAXA)

Observing the Earth and Educational Activities Space Education Project of Leave a nest C. Ltd (Leaveanest Seed Project) is a commercial venture between the JAXA and the Leave a nest C. Ltd. For this educational activity, Bonsai Tomato and MicroTom seeds are brought to the station and then returned for distribution. (JAXA)

Technology Development for Exploration Autonomous Robotic Operations Performed from the ISS (Avatar Explore) is a technology demonstration used to develop remote communications for robot autonomy software. This experiment uses the amateur HAM radio on board the station to interact with a rover on Earth in a Mars exploration scenario. Space Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System (SpaceDRUMS) is a suite of hardware that enables containerless processing of experimental materials without ever touching a container wall. Using a collection of 20 acoustic beam emitters, SpaceDRUMS can completely suspend a baseball-sized solid or liquid sample during combustion or heat-based synthesis. Because the samples never contact the container walls, materials can be produced in microgravity with an unparalleled quality of shape and composition. The goal of the SpaceDRUMS hardware is to assist with the development of advanced materials of a commercial quantity and quality, using the space-based experiments to guide development of manufacturing processes on Earth. (NASA)


STS-128/17A Human Research and Countermeasure Development for Exploration Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration spaceflight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts. (NASA)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository (Repository) is a storage bank that is used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time and under well-controlled conditions. Biological samples from the International Space Station, including blood and urine, will be collected, processed and archived during the preflight, inflight and postflight phases of station missions. This investigation has been developed to archive biosamples for use as a resource for future spaceflight-related research. (NASA)

Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crew Member Immune Function (Integrated Immune) assesses the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of spaceflight on the human immune system and will validate a flight-compatible immune monitoring strategy. Researchers collect and analyze blood, urine and saliva samples from crew members before, during and after spaceflight to monitor changes in the immune system. Changes in the immune system are monitored by collecting and analyzing blood and saliva samples from crew members during flight and blood, urine, and saliva samples before and after spaceflight. (NASA)

Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) determines whether antiresorptive agents (help reduce bone loss), in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect station crew members from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous station missions. (NASA)

A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft (SWAB) will use advanced molecular techniques to comprehensively evaluate microbes on board the space station, including pathogens (organisms that may cause disease). It also will track changes in the microbial community as spacecraft visit the station and new station modules are added. This study will allow an assessment of the risk of microbes to the crew and the spacecraft. (NASA)

Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS (CCISS) will study the effects of long-duration spaceflight on crew members’ heart functions and their blood vessels that supply the brain. Learning more about the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems could lead to specific countermeasures that might better protect future space travelers. This experiment is collaborative effort with the Canadian Space Agency. (NASA/CSA)

Passive Dosimeter for Life Science Experiment in Space (PADLES) measures radiation exposure levels on board the International Space Station. PADLES uses passive and integrating dosimeters to detect radiation levels. These dosimeters are located near the biological experiment facilities and on the end of the Japanese Experiment Module, Kibo. The proposed research seeks to survey the radiation environment inside the Kibo by using Area dosimeter. Area dosimeter and the analysis system have been developed in JAXA as a system for space radiation dosimetry. The dosimeters measure absorbed doses, equivalent doses and Liner Energy Transfer (LET) distributions. (JAXA)

Mental Representation of Spatial Cues During Space Flight (3D-Space) experiment investigates the effects of exposure to microgravity on the mental representation of spatial cues by astronauts during and after spaceflight. The absence of the gravitational frame of reference during spaceflight could be responsible for disturbances in the mental representation of spatial cues, such as the perception of horizontal and vertical lines, the perception of objects’ depth and the perception of targets’ distance. (ESA)

Physical and Biological Science in Microgravity Integrated Assessment of Long-term Cosmic Radiation Through Biological Responses of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, in Space (RadSilk) examines the effects of radiation exposure in microgravity on silkworms. (JAXA)

Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants in orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the station and falls under a cooperative agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Agency (FSA). (NASA/FSA)

Technology Development Materials International Space Station Experiment – 6A and 6B (MISSE-6A and 6B) is a sample box attached to the outside of the International Space Station; it is used for testing the effects of exposure to the space environment on small samples of new materials. These samples will be evaluated for their reaction to atomic oxygen erosion, direct sunlight, radiation, and extremes of heat and cold. Results will provide a better understanding of the durability of various materials, with important applications in the design of future spacecraft. (NASA)

European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) is a platform that provides power, data, thermal control and structural support to payloads mounted on the Columbus External Payload Facility. During its time in orbit, EuTEF supported the following nine experiments:
− DEBris In-orbit Evaluator (DEBIE-2): Micrometeoroid and orbital debris detector
− Dosimetric Telescope (DOSTEL): Measuring the radiation environment
− EuTEF Thermometer (EuTEMP): Measure EuTEF’s thermal environment
− Earth Viewing Camera (EVC): Earth observing camera
− Exposure Experiment (Expose): An exobiological exposure facility
− Flux(Phi) Probe EXperiment (FIPEX): Atomic oxygen detector
− Material Exposure and Degradation Experiment (MEDET): Examine material degradation
− Plasma Electron Gun Payload (PLEGPAY): Plasma discharge in orbit
− An Experiment on Space Tribology Experiment (Tribolab): Testbed for the tribology (study of friction on moving parts) properties of materials

Additional Station Research from Now Until the End of Expedition 20

Human Research and Countermeasure Development for Exploration Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS (CCISS) will study the effects of long-duration spaceflight on crew members’ heart functions and their blood vessels that supply the brain. Learning more about the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems could lead to specific countermeasures that might better protect future space travelers. This experiment is collaborative effort with the Canadian Space Agency. (NASA/CSA)

Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight-Long (Sleep-Long) examines the effects of spaceflight and ambient light exposure on the sleep-wake cycles of the crew members during long-duration stays on the space station. (NASA)

Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration spaceflight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts. (NASA)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Biological Specimen Repository (Repository) is a storage bank that is used to maintain biological specimens over extended periods of time and under well-controlled conditions. Biological samples from the International Space Station, including blood and urine, will be collected, processed and archived during the preflight, inflight and postflight phases of station missions. This investigation has been developed to archive biosamples for use as a resource for future spaceflight-related research. (NASA)

Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crew Member Immune Function (Integrated Immune) assesses the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of spaceflight on the human immune system and will validate a flight-compatible immune monitoring strategy.

Researchers collect and analyze blood, urine and saliva samples from crew members before, during and after spaceflight to monitor changes in the immune system. Changes in the immune system are monitored by collecting and analyzing blood and saliva samples from crew members during flight and blood, urine, and saliva samples before and after spaceflight. (NASA) Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long-Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias (Integrated Cardiovascular) will quantify the extent, time course and clinical significance of cardiac atrophy (decrease in the size of the heart muscle) associated with long-duration spaceflight. This experiment will also identify the mechanisms of this atrophy and the functional consequences for crew members who will spend extended periods of time in space. (NASA)

Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) determines whether antiresorptive agents (help reduce bone loss), in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect station crew members from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous station missions. (NASA)

The Effect of Long-Term Microgravity Exposure on Cardiac Autonomic Function by Analyzing 24-hours Electrocardiogram (Biological Rhythms) examines the effect of long-term microgravity exposure on cardiac autonomic function by analyzing 24-hour electrocardiogram. (JAXA)

SOdium LOading in Microgravity (SOLO) is a continuation of extensive research into the mechanisms of fluid and salt retention in the body during bed rest and spaceflights. It is a metabolically-controlled study. During long-term space missions, astronauts will participate in two study phases, five days each. Subjects follow a diet of constant either low or normal sodium intake, fairly high fluid consumption and isocaloric nutrition.

Observing the Earth and Educational Activities

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth’s surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

Education Payload Operation
– Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station by crew members using hardware already on board the station. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers

Technology Development

Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) are bowling-ball sized spherical satellites. They are used inside the space station to test a set of well-defined instructions for spacecraft
performing autonomous rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Three free-flying spheres fly within the cabin of the station, performing flight formations. Each satellite is self-contained with power, propulsion, computers and navigation equipment. The results are important for satellite servicing, vehicle assembly and formation flying spacecraft configurations. (NASA)

Space Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System (SpaceDRUMS)
comprises a suite of hardware that enables containerless processing (samples of experimental materials can be processed without ever touching a container wall). Using a collection of 20 acoustic beam emitters, SpaceDRUMS can completely suspend a baseball-sized solid or liquid sample during combustion or heat-based synthesis. Because the samples never contact the container walls, materials can be produced in microgravity with an unparalleled quality of shape and composition. The ultimate goal of the SpaceDRUMS hardware is to assist with the development of advanced materials of a commercial quantity and quality, using the space-based experiments to guide development of manufacturing processes on Earth.

Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) and Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS-II) measure vibration and quasi-steady accelerations that result from vehicle control burns, docking and undocking activities. The two different equipment packages measure vibrations at different frequencies.

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