Topics: EUROPE - Europe 1454-1500: The New World

Europe 1454-1500: The New World

1454 Peace of Lodi; Thirteen Years’ War between Poland and Russia, 1454–1466; Henry IV (Castile), 1454–1474;

1455 Wars of the Roses (England), 1455–1485; Portuguese fleets reach Senegal River, begin to exchange slaves and manufactured gifts for gold; Pope Callistus, 1455–1458

1457 Christian I of Denmark take power as king of Sweden, 1457–1464

1458 Turks sack the Acropolis; Portuguese occupy Ksar as-Saghir on Moroccan coast; Pope Pius II, 1458–1464; George of Podebrady (Bohemia), 1458–1471; Matthias Corvinus (Hungary), 1458–1490; John II (Spain), 1458–1479;

1459  Fra Mauro creates world map for Portuguese king Afonso V

1460  James III (Scotland), 1460–1488

1461 Edward IV (England), 1461–1470; Louis XI (France), 1461–1483

1462 Ivan III (Muscovy), 1462–1505, first to called himself tsar of all Russia; First Monte di Pieta established by Franciscans in Perugia; Platonic Academy est. by Marsilio Ficino

1464 Piero I de’ Medici, ruler of Florence, 1464–1469; Charles XIII (Sweden), 1464–1465; Postal service est. in France by Louis XI; Pope Paul II, 1464–1471

1465 Christian I of Denmark, king of Sweden, 1465–1467; Antonio del Pollaiulo, Battle of the Nudes; Andrea del Verrocchio, Christ and Doubting Thomas, 1465–1483

1466 Peace of Torun – End of Thirteen Years’ War between Poland and Russia; Teutonic Knights return conquered territories to Poland ;Leon Battista Alberti invents cypher disk system

1467 Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, 1467–1477; Charles VIII (Sweden), 1467–1470

1469 Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile lays groundwork for unification of Spain; Lorenzo de’ Medici, ruler of Florence, 1469–1492

1470 Henry VI (England), 1470–1471; Portuguese arrive in Sao Tome’, Ano Bom, and Principe

1471 Vladislav II (Bohemia), 1471–1516; Edward VI (England), 1471–1483; Sten Stur the Elder, regent of Sweden, 1471–1497; Portuguese occupy Arzilla and Tangier; Italian citystates begin striking coins known as ‘‘testons’’; Pope Sixtus IV, 1471–1484

1474 Isabella, Queen of Castile, 1474–1504; Ferdinand serves as king consort, Ferdinand V, 1474–1504

1475 Cologne recognized as an imperial free city by HRE Frederick III; Crimean Khanate accepts vassalage to Ottoman sultan

1477 Burgundy divided between France and HRE after death of Duke Charles the Bold; Sandro Botticelli, LaPrimavera; Johannes Tinctoris, Liber deArte Contrapuncti; founded University of Uppsala

1478 Megli Giray, Crimean khan, 1478–1515; Novgorod conquered by Muscovy; Pazzi conspiracy in Florence Spanish Inquisition est. 1479 Ferdinand II, king of Aragon, 1479–1516, rules Aragon and Castile jointly with Isabella; Tr. Of Alcacovas

1479 Founded Copenhagen University;

1480 Ivan III confronts Golden Horde, ends Mongol supremacy in Russia; Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan, 1480–1499

1481 Bayezid II (Ottoman Empire), 1481–1512; John II (Portugal), 1481– 1495; Agreement of Stans guarantees internal autonomy and mutual support of Swiss cantons

1482 Peace of Arras; Kiev plundered by Mengli Giray; Fort of Sao Jorge da Mina (Ghana) est. by Portuguese

1483 John (Denmark and Norway), 1483–1513; Edward V (England), 1483, followed by Richard III, 1483–1485; Charles VIII (France), 1483–1498

1484 Portuguese arrive at Congo River Pope Innocent VIII, 1484– 1492; Annunciation Cathedral built as Kremlin palace church, 1484–1489; Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus

1485 Battle of Bosworth field; Henry VII (England), 1485–1509, first Tudor king; Portuguese reach Angola; Saxony divided by dukes Albert and Ernest; Thomas Malory, Le morte d’Arthur

1486 Maximilian I becomes coregent with his father, HRE Frederick III; Frederick III ‘‘the Wise,’’ elector of Saxony, 1486–1525; Pico della Mirandola, De Hominis Dignitatis Oratio

1487 - Faceted Palace built in Moscow Kremlin, 1487–1491

1488 James IV (Scotland), 1488–1513; Portuguese Bartolomeu Dias, the first European to sail around the southernmost tip of Africa

1489 Michelangelo Buonarroti, Madonna of the Stairs, 1489–1492

1490 Vladislas I (Hungary), 1490–1516, king of Bohemia (as Vladislav II) from 1471

1491 Anne of Brittany becomes queen of France by marriage to Charles VIII, 1491–1498

1492 Piero II, ruler of Florence, 1492–1494; John I Albert (Poland), 1492–1501; Alexander, grand duke of Lithuania, 1492–1506; Ivan III of Muscovy invades Lithuania, 1492–1494; Capitulation of Granada to Spain; Jews expelled from Spain; first voyage of Christopher Columbus, 1492–1493; Pope Alexander VI, 1492–1503; Martin Behaim’s globe (omits America)

1493 Maximilian I (HRE), 1493–1519; Pope Alexander VI issues bulls Inter Caetera, dividing New World between Spain and Portugal; second voyage of Christopher Columbus, 1493–1496; Nuremberg Chronicle printed

1494 Habsburg-Valois conflict (Italian Wars), 1494–1559; French invade Italy; Medici exiled from Florence, republican rule 1494–1512; Tr. of Tordesillas; Sebastian Brant, Das Narrenschiff

1495 Charles VIII of France enters Naples; Diet of Worms; Manuel I (Portugal), 1495–1521; Aldus Manutius the Elder’s Aldine Press issues first book (Erotemata of Constantine Lascaris); Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights; Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper, 1495–1498

1496 City of Santo Domingo founded by Christopher Columbus; Isaac Abravanel, Wellsprings of Salvation

1497 Cabot’s voyage to Canada; Vasco da Gama voyage to India; Muscovite law code (Sudebnik) promulgated; Spanish gold doubloon introduced, common coin of international trade; John of Denmark reigns as John II of Sweden, 1497–1501; Ettore Vernazza found s Oratory of Divine Love in Genoa

1498 third voyage of Christopher Columbus, 1498–1500; Louis XII (France), 1498–1515; Vasco da Gama reaches Malabar coast (southwest) of India; Girolamo Savonarola burned for heresy

1499 Anne of Britanny marries Louis XII, becoming queen of France for the second time, 1499–1514; Amerigo Vespucci voyages to America; Perkin Warbeck executed

1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral reaches Brazil; Second Muscovite-Lithuanian War, 1500–1503

Europe 1454-1500: The New World
The School of Athens - fresco by Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520)