Topics: Physical Geography - 1. Geomorphology

1. Geomorphology

Geomorphology studies the various landforms on the Earth's surface. It is the field of knowledge that investigates the origin of landforms on the Earth and other planets.


Geomorphology is the scientific discipline concerned with the description and classification of the Earth’s topographic features. Much geomorphologic research has been devoted to the origin of landforms. Such studies focus on the forces that mold and alter the primary relief elements of the terrestrial surface. These forces include tectonic activity and surficial earth movements (e.g., landslides and rockfalls). They also involve weathering and the erosion and deposition of the resulting rock debris by wind, glacial ice, and streams. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the effects of human action on the physical environment as well.

Many systems of classifying landforms have been devised since the late 19th century. Some systems describe and group topographic features primarily according to the processes that shaped or modified them. Others take additional factors into consideration (e.g., character of the surface rocks and climatic variations) and include the developmental stage of landforms as an aspect of their evolution over geologic time.

Geomorphology is closely allied with a number of other scientific disciplines that are concerned with natural processes. Fluvial and coastal geomorphology rely heavily on fluid mechanics and sedimentology; studies of mass movement, weathering, wind action, and soils draw on the atmospheric sciences, soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil mechanics; research on certain landform types entails the principles and methods of geophysics and volcanology; and the study of human impact upon landforms relies on the disciplines of geography and human ecology.

Source: geomorphology. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 15, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:

1. Geomorphology
Active tectonics of eastern IranEast-west cross-sectional views of the Gowk fault, "ramp-and-flat" structure on an oblique thrust fault.Source: