Goals: - To characterize discrete subgroups of the additive group of complex numbers and to use this characterization to classify Riemann surfaces whose universal covering is the complex plane - To see how the twisting of the universal covering space by an automorphism (of the universal covering space) leads to the identification of the fundamental group (of the base of the covering) with a conjugate of the deck transformation group of the original covering - To show that the natural Riemann surface structures, on the quotient of the complex plane by the group of translations by integer multiples of a fixed nonzero complex number does not depend on that complex number; in other words that all such Riemann surfaces are isomorphic Topics: Upper-triangular matrix, complex plane, universal covering, deck transformation, abelian fundamental group, additive group of translations, module, submodule, discrete submodule, discrete subgroup
The subject of algebraic curves (equivalently compact Riemann surfaces) has its origins going back to the work of Riemann, Abel, Jacobi, Noether, Weierstrass, Clifford and Teichmueller. It continues to be a source for several hot areas of current research. Its development requires ideas from diverse areas such as analysis, PDE, complex and real differential geometry, algebra---especially commutative algebra and Galois theory, homological algebra, number theory, topology and manifold theory. The course begins by introducing the notion of a Riemann surface followed by examples. Then the classification of Riemann surfaces is achieved on the basis of the fundamental group by the use of covering space theory and uniformisation. This reduces the study of Riemann surfaces to that of subgroups of Moebius transformations. The case of compact Riemann surfaces of genus 1, namely elliptic curves, is treated in detail. The algebraic nature of elliptic curves and a complex analytic construction of the moduli space of elliptic curves is given.