[First of two parts] Here we address a core logical problem with modern mathematics--the usual definition of a `function' does not contain precise enough bounds on the nature of the rules or procedures (or computer programs) allowed. Here we discuss the difficulty in the context of functions from natural numbers to natural numbers, giving lots of explicit examples. WARNING: this video and the next destabilizes much of the mathematics taught in universities.This lecture is part of the MathFoundations series, which tries to lay out proper foundations for mathematics, and will not shy away from discussing the serious logical difficulties entwined in modern pure mathematics.
Does mathematics make logical sense? No, it does not. Foundational issues have been finessed by modern mathematicians, and this series aims to turn things around. And it will have interesting things to say also about mathematics education---especially at the primary and high school level. The plan is to start right from the beginning, and to define all the really important concepts of basic mathematics without any waffling or appeals to authority. Roughly we discuss first arithmetic, then geometry, then algebra, then analysis, then set theory. This course is aimed for a general audience, interested in mathematics, or willing to learn.