Date Added: August 11, 2016
Gamma-ray bursts are not only incredible to study, but their discovery has an epic story all its own. Today Phil takes you through some Cold War history and then dives into what we know. Bursts come in two rough varieties: Long and short. Long ones are from hypernovae, massive stars exploding, sending out twin beams of matter and energy. Short ones are from merging neutron stars. Both kinds are so energetic they are visible for billions of light years, and both are also the birth announcements of black holes.
Crash Course Astronomy Poster: store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-astronomy-poster -- Table of Contents Gamma-Ray Were Discovered During the Cold War 0:47 Bursts Come in Two Varieties: Long and Short 8:35 Long Bursts Are From Hypernovae, Massive Stars Exploding 6:46 Short Ones Are From Merging Neutron Stars 9:00 Both Are The Birthplace of Black holes 9:55 -- PBS Digital Studios: youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Follow Phil on Twitter: twitter.com/badastronomer Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Patreon: www.patreon.com/crashcourse -- PHOTOS/VIDEOS Nuclear Bomb Images via Wikimedia Commons: Operation Upshot Knothole en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Operation_Upshot-Knothole_-_Badger_001.jpg Ivy Mike en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IvyMike2.jpg Castle Bravo en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castle_Bravo#/media/File:Castle_Bravo_Blast.jpg Upshot Knothole GRABLE en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Upshot-Knothole_GRABLE.jpg President Kennedy signs the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partial_Nuclear_Test_Ban_Treaty#/media/File:President_Kennedy_signs_Nuclear_Test_Ban_Treaty,_07_October_1963.jpg [credit: Wikimedia Commons] Vela www.losangeles.af.mil/shared/media/photodb/photos/2013/06/130605-F-IN001-011.jpg [credit: USAF] The Crab Nebula www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1604.html [credit: NASA, ESA, J. Hester, A. Loll (ASU)] Solar Flare www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/news/News041612-M1.7flare.html [credit: NASA/SDO/AIA] Gamma Ray Burst svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=20139 [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab] Four ALMA antennas on the Chajnantor plain www.eso.org/public/images/alma-jfs-2010-10/ [credit: ESO/José Francisco Salgado (josefrancisco.org)] Gamma Ray Burst 970228 www.spacetelescope.org/images/opo9730b/ [credit: Andrew Fruchter (STScI), Elena Pian (ITSRE-CNR), and NASA/ESA] HST/STIS Image of the optical afterglow of w:GRB 970508 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GRB_970508#/media/File:StisI.gif [credit: STScI/NASA] Black Holes: Monsters in Space www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/nustar/multimedia/pia16695.html [credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech] Naked-Eye Gamma-ray Burst Model for GRB 080319B svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=10369 [credit: NASA/Swift/Cruz deWilde] 2008 GRB www.nasa.gov/images/content/218810main_grb_20080320_HI.jpg [credit: NASA/Swift/Stefan Immler, et al.] GRB Data www.nasa.gov/images/content/134782main_GRB_data_compare_black_sm.jpg [credit: NASA] Imagine two massive stars born together as a binary star chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2005/j0806/wd_lg.mpg [credit: NASA/GSFC/D. Berry] Colliding Binary Neutron stars chandra.harvard.edu/resources/animations/neutronstars.html?page=4 [credit: NASA/D.Berry] Black Hole Devours a Neutron Star chandra.harvard.edu/resources/animations/neutronstars.html?page=5 [credit: NASA/D.Berry] Eta Carinae en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eta_Carinae#/media/File:Eta_Carinae.jpg [credit: Jon Morse (University of Colorado) & NASA Hubble Space Telescope] WR 104: A Pinwheel Star System apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap140603.html [credit: P. Tuthill (U. Sydney) & J. Monnier (U. Michigan), Keck Obs., ARC, NSF] Swift HD Beauty Shot svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=10867 [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center] Swift's 500 Gamma-ray Bursts svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=10590 [credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center] Course Index
In this Crash Course series, marvel at the wonders of astronomy with your host for this intergalactic adventure, the Bad Astronomer himself -- Phil Plait. In just 40 short lessons, you will learn the basics of the oldest science known to humanity.
Be sure to check out links to relevant Photos in the description for each video.