1. Base excision repair can removed damaged based from DNA. It differs from nucleotide excision repair in removing the damaged base first, followed by removal of a segment where the base was.
2. Disruption of error correction systems can have severe consequences.
3. Error-related systems associated with cancer include HNPCC (colon cancer) and BRC-A (not mentioned in class), which is involved in DNA repair. A critical protein for monitoring DNA for damage prior to division is p53. It can stop the cell cycle if it senses damage and initiate repair. If repair is unable to be performed, p53 can induce cellular suicide - apoptosis.
4. An Ames test uses a selectable marker that can give a readily observable phenotype (such as growth on antibiotic) when mutation happens. By comparing the number of cells with the observable phenotype in a the presence of a test compound to the number of cells in another tube lacking that compound, the mutagenicity of a compound can be determined.
5. Recombination of DNA results in mixing and matching of DNA sequences. The process occurs most often between homologous sequences on different chromosomes. The process can be quite active during meiosis.
6. Recombination proceeds through formation of a Holliday junction. Holliday junctions form as a result of alignment of homologous sequences, followed by cleavage of strands on each chromosome, invasion of the strands into the opposite chromosome, movement of the junction, another cleavage reaction, followed by reformation of phosphodiester bonds.
7. Enzymes involved in recombination are called recombinases and are similar in function to the integrase of HIV.
This course in general biochemistry is intended to integrate information about metabolic pathways with respiration (respiratory control) and initiate the student into a microscopic world where blueprints are made of deoxyribonucleic acids, factories operate using enzymes, and the exchange rate is in ATPs rather than Yens or Euros. Beyond explaining terms, and iterating reactions and metabolic pathways, this course strives to establish that the same principles that govern the behavior of the world around us also govern the transactions inside this microscopic world of the living cell. And by studying and applying these principles, we begin to understand cellular and bodily processes that include sensory mechanisms.
Topics include: 1. Lipids, Membranes and Transport 2. Electron Transport, Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial 3. Transport Systems 3. Lipid Metabolism 4. Nucleotide Metabolism 5. DNA Replication 6. Transcription 7. Translation