Lecture Description
GW's from Inflation and GW Detection in ELF Band via Anisotropy of CMB Polarization - Week 19, Lecture 35, Part 2 [by Marc Kamionkowski]
- The Cosmic Microwave Background [CMB]
- Its nature and physical origin
- Surface of last scattering; size of causally connected regions
- Why so isotropic? only good explanation: inflation
Inflation: basic ideas
- Inflaton scalar field and its potential; slow roll; evolution of its vacuum energy density; influence on universal expansion: inflation
- Evolution of expansion factor of universe: pre-inflation, inflation, radiation-dominance, matter dominance
- Smoothing of universe during inflation; explanation of observed isotropy of CMB
- Inflation also predicts universe is spatially flat -- as has now been confirmed observationally
GW production by inflation:
- Explanation as analog of Hawking radiation from a black hole
- Derivation as inflation's parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations [see also Week 9, Lecture 16]
- Predicted rms h: proportional to square of energy scale of inflation divided by square of Planck mass => If we can measure h, can infer energy scale of inflation
- Predicted spectrum; comparison with LISA and LIGO sensitivities; main hope to detect is by influence on CMB in ELF band
Influence of inflationary GW's on CMB
- Anisotropy of temperature:
- limit on h and on energy scale of inflation from observed temperature anisotropy; comparison with energy scales for GUT and other possible causes of inflation
- Temperature anisotropy is also produced by density fluctuations; cannot cleanly separate influence of density fluctuations from GWs
Anisotropy of polarization:
- GW's produce anisotropy in EM radiation at epoch of last scattering
- This anisotropy of EM intensity causes scattered radiation to be polarized
- Density perturbations also produce polarization
- GW-induced polarization is distinguishable from density-induced polarization via polarization pattern: GW pattern has nonvanishing curl
Prospects to detect CMB polarization and its nonvanishing curl, and thereby measure energy scale of inflation
- MAP, Planck, and post-Planck CMB missions
- post-Planck could reach inflation energy scale 2 x 10^15 GeV (1/15 of current limit)
- Constraint on sensitivity: density-induced polarization has a tiny but finite curl due to weak gravitational lensing, which mimics GW-induced polarization
Course Index
- The Nature of Gravitational Waves
- Gravitational Waves Data Analysis
- Gravitational Wave Sources in Neutron Stars
- Introduction to General Relativity: Tidal Gravity
- Mathematics of General Relativity: Tensor Algebra
- Mathematics of General Relativity: Tensor Differentiation
- Introduction to General Relativity (4/5)
- Introduction to General Relativity (5/5)
- Weak Gravitational Waves in Flat Spacetime (1/6)
- Weak Gravitational Waves in Flat Spacetime (2/6)
- Weak Gravitational Waves in Flat Spacetime (3/6)
- Weak Gravitational Waves in Flat Spacetime (4/6)
- Weak Gravitational Waves in Flat Spacetime (5/6)
- Weak Gravitational Waves in Flat Spacetime (6/6); Propagation of Gravitational Waves Through Curved Spacetime (1/5)
- Propagation of Gravitational Waves Through Curved Spacetime (2/5)
- Propagation of Gravitational Waves Through Curved Spacetime (3/5)
- Propagation of Gravitational Waves Through Curved Spacetime (4/5)
- Propagation of Gravitational Waves Through Curved Spacetime (5/5)
- Generation of Gravitational Waves by Slow-Motion Sources in Curved Spacetime (1/2)
- Generation of Gravitational Waves by Slow-Motion Sources in Curved Spacetime (2/2)
- Astrophysical Phenomenology of Binary-Star GW Sources (1/5)
- Astrophysical Phenomenology of Binary-Star GW Sources (2/5)
- Astrophysical Phenomenology of Binary-Star GW Sources (3/5)
- Astrophysical Phenomenology of Binary-Star GW Sources (4/5)
- Astrophysical Phenomenology of Binary-Star GW Sources (5/5); Post-Newtonian G-Waveforms for LIGO & Its Partners (1/2
- Post-Newtonian Gravitational Waveforms for LIGO & Its Partners (2/2)
- Supermassive Black Holes and their Gravitational Waves (1/3)
- Supermassive Black Holes and their Gravitational Waves (2/3)
- Supermassive Black Holes and their Gravitational Waves (3/3); Gravitational Waves from Inflation (1/2)
- Gravitational Waves from Inflation (2/2)
- Gravitational Waves from Neutron-Star Rotation and Pulsation (1/2)
- Gravitational Waves from Neutron-Star Rotation and Pulsation (2/2)
- Numerical Relativity as a Tool for Computing GW Generation (1/2)
- Numerical Relativity as a Tool for Computing GW Generation (2/2)
- The Physics Underlying Earth-Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers (1/4)
- The Physics Underlying Earth-Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers (2/4)
- The Physics Underlying Earth-Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers (3/4)
- The Physics Underlying Earth-Based Gravitational Wave Interferometers (4/4)
- Overview of Real LIGO Interferometers (1/2)
- Overview of Real LIGO Interferometers (2/2)
- Thermal Noise in LIGO Interferometers and its Control (1/2)
- Thermal Noise in LIGO Interferometers and its Control (2/2)
- Control Systems and Laser Frequency Stabilization (1/2)
- Control Systems and Laser Frequency Stabilization (2/2)
- Interferometer Simulations and Lock Acquisition in LIGO
- Seismic Isolation in Earth-Based Interferometers
- Quantum Optical noise in GW Interferometers (1/2)
- Quantum Optical noise in GW Interferometers (2/2)
- LIGO data analysis (1/2)
- LIGO data analysis (2/2)
- The Long-Term Future of LIGO: Facility Limits
- The Long-Term Future of LIGO: Techniques for Improving on LIGO-II
- Large Experimental Science and LIGO as an Example (1/2)
- Large Experimental Science and LIGO as an Example (2/2)
- Resonant-Mass GW Detectors for the HF Band (1/2)
- Resonant-Mass GW Detectors for the HF Band (2/2)
- CAJAGWR talk by W.O. Hamilton on Resonant-Mass GW Detectors
- Doppler tracking of spacecraft for GW detection in the low frequency band
- Pulsar timing for GW detection in the very low frequency band
- LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) for GW Detection in LF Band: Conceptual Design (1/2)
- LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) for GW Detection in LF Band: Conceptual Design (2/2)
- LISA's Lasers and Optics (1/2)
- LISA's Lasers and Optics (2/2)
- Time-Delay Interferometry [TDI] for LISA (1/2)
- Time-Delay Interferometry [TDI] for LISA (2/2)
- LISA's Distrubance Reduction System (DRS) [Drag-Free System] (1/2)
- LISA's Distrubance Reduction System (DRS) [Drag-Free System] (2/2)
- The Big-Bang Observatory [BBO]: A Possible Follow-On Mission to LISA
- GW's from Inflation and GW Detection in ELF Band via Anisotropy of CMB Polarization
Course Description
Caltech's Physics 237-2002: Gravitational Waves
A Web-Based Course organized and Designed by Kip S. Thorne, Mihai Bondarescu and Yanbei Chen.
This course contains all the materials from a graduate-student-level course on Gravitational Waves taught at the California Institute of Technology, January through May of 2002. The materials include Quicktime videos of the lectures, lists of suggested and supplementary reading, copies of some of the readings, many exercises, and solutions to all exercises. The video files are so large that it may not be possible to stream them from most sites, but they can be downloaded. Alternatively, the course materials on DVD's can be borrowed via Interlibrary Loan from the Caltech Library (click on CLAS, then on Call Number, then enter QC179.T56 2002 ).
Questions and issues about this course and website can be directed to Mihai Bondarescu or Yanbei Chen.
- - Part A - Gravitational-Wave Theory and Sources
- - Part B - Gravitational-Wave Detectors - original outline
- - Part B - Gravitational-Wave Detectors - alternative outline with the lectures reordered more logically
- - Course Materials