Indian Philosophy (Sanskrit: Bhārtiya Darshan) deals with various philosophical thoughts of many several traditions those originated in the Indian subcontinent, including Hindu philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, and Jain philosophy. The common themes of all these philosophies are unity and diversity (advaita and dvaita) in their understanding, interpretation of the existence of reality, and explanation of the attainment of liberation (moksha).
They had been formulated mostly from 1,500 BC to a few centuries A.D. with critical investigations and creative ways of philosophically interpreting socio-political-economic issues of existential importance. Thus, thinkers of any tradition strongly viewed that philosophy as a study of practical necessity needs to be cultivated in order to understand 'how life can best be led?'
The Indian philosophical systems are classified into two groups on the basis of the acceptance of Vedas; Orthodox and Heterodox System. The orthodox systems are: Vaisheshika, Nyāya, Sāmkhya, Yoga, Purva-Mimānsā, and Uttar-Mimānsā (Vedānta). All these systems encapsulate in three pairs, namely Nyāya-Vaisheshika, Yoga-Sāmkhya, Mimānsā-Vedānta. In each of these pairs, the first system is concerned with the practice and the second one is elucidated its theoretical bases. However, all these systems are discussed with a critical approach to their theories in this course. In addition to these, Chārvaka School, Jainism and Buddhism systems are analyzed as part of the heterodox system. Over and above, an introductory note to Indian Philosophy is placed at the beginning of the course.