Goals: - To ask the question as to when the quotient of a space, by a subgroup of automorphisms (self-isomorphisms) of that space, becomes again a space with good properties. For example: when does the quotient of a Riemann surface, by a subgroup of holomorphic automorphisms, again become a Riemann surface? - To define properly discontinuous (free) actions and note that they are fixed-point-free - To see that the action of the Deck transformation group on the covering space is properly discontinuous - To define Galois (or) Regular (or) Normal coverings and characterize them precisely as quotients by properly discontinuous actions Topics: upper half-plane, biholomorphism class (or) holomorphic isomorphism class, complex torus, projective special linear group, unimodular group, quotient by a subgroup of automorphisms, quotient by the Deck transformation group, orbits of a group action, quotient topology, properly discontinuous action, action without fixed points, transitive action, admissible neighborhood, Galois covering (or) Normal covering (or) Regular covering, covariant functor, normal subgroup, equivalence relation induced by a group action, open map, unique lifting property, covering homotopy theorem, Riemann sphere, stabilizer (or) isotropy subgroup, ramified (or) branched covering
The subject of algebraic curves (equivalently compact Riemann surfaces) has its origins going back to the work of Riemann, Abel, Jacobi, Noether, Weierstrass, Clifford and Teichmueller. It continues to be a source for several hot areas of current research. Its development requires ideas from diverse areas such as analysis, PDE, complex and real differential geometry, algebra---especially commutative algebra and Galois theory, homological algebra, number theory, topology and manifold theory. The course begins by introducing the notion of a Riemann surface followed by examples. Then the classification of Riemann surfaces is achieved on the basis of the fundamental group by the use of covering space theory and uniformisation. This reduces the study of Riemann surfaces to that of subgroups of Moebius transformations. The case of compact Riemann surfaces of genus 1, namely elliptic curves, is treated in detail. The algebraic nature of elliptic curves and a complex analytic construction of the moduli space of elliptic curves is given.