1. Nucleotides consist of a) sugar, b) nitrogenous base, and c) phosphate
2. Nucleosides consist of a a) sugar and b) nitrogenous base
3. The sugars of nucleosides and nucleotides are either ribose (found in ribonucleotides of RNA) or deoxyribose (found in deoxyribonucleotides of DNA).
4. Unless otherwise specified, the term "nucleotide" will be used in this class to indicate either ribonucleotides (contain ribose) or deoxyribonucleotides (contain deoxyribose).
5. Unless otherwise specified, the term "nucleoside" will be used in this class to indicate either ribonucleosides (contain ribose) or deoxyribonucleosides (contain deoxyribose).
6. The term nucleoside phosphate is equivalent to a nucleotide (nucleoside + phosphate + base = nucleotide). This is true whether it is a monophosphate, diphosphate, or triphosphate.
7. The nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides include adenine (purine), guanine (purine), thymine (pyrimidine), cytosine (pyrimidine), and uracil (pyrimidine).
8. The bases adenine, guanine, and cytosine are found in both ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides. Thymine is almost always found in deoxyribonucleotides. Uracil is found primarily in ribonucleotides and rarely in DNA, but does appear as a deoxyribonucleotide intermediate in thymidine metabolism.
9. Nucleosides are named according to the base they contain. Nucleosides containing purines are named by adding "os" before the "ine." Thus, nucleosides containing guanine are called guanosine. Nucleosides containing pyrmidines are named with the suffix "idine" at the end of the name of the base they contain. Thus, the pyrimidine nucleosides are cytidine, uridine, and thymidine.
10. Ribonucleotides are the building blocks of RNA and deoxyribonucleotides are the building blocks of DNA.
This course in general biochemistry is intended to integrate information about metabolic pathways with respiration (respiratory control) and initiate the student into a microscopic world where blueprints are made of deoxyribonucleic acids, factories operate using enzymes, and the exchange rate is in ATPs rather than Yens or Euros. Beyond explaining terms, and iterating reactions and metabolic pathways, this course strives to establish that the same principles that govern the behavior of the world around us also govern the transactions inside this microscopic world of the living cell. And by studying and applying these principles, we begin to understand cellular and bodily processes that include sensory mechanisms.
1. Lipids, Membranes and Transport
2. Electron Transport, Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial 3. Transport Systems
3. Lipid Metabolism
4. Nucleotide Metabolism
5. DNA Replication