1. For every oxidation, there is an equal and Loss of elecrons by one molecule means gain of them by another one. Oxidation is a process that involves the loss of electrons. Reduction is a process that involves the gain of electrons.
2. Electrons are carried to the electron transport system in the mitochondria by NADH and FADH2.
3. Mitochondria are the site of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
4. Electrons from NADH enter the electron transport system through complex I.
5. Electrons from FADH2 enter the electron transport system through complex II.
6. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) accepts a pair of electrons from either complex I or complex II and passes electrons singly to cytochrome c through complex III. Thus, coenzyme Q acts as a "traffic cop" for electrons.
8. Oxygen is thus the terminal electron acceptor and is a limiting compound during periods of heavy exercise.
9. If oxygen is not available, electrons will NOT pass through the electron transport system and NADH and FADH2 will not be reoxidized. For these reasons, the citric acid cycle will not run either. This is part of metabolic control.
10. Several compounds inhibit electron transport - rotenone (an insecticide) and amytal block all action of Complex I. Antimycin A blocks all action of Complex III. Cyanide, azide, and carbon monoxide block all action of complex IV.
11. Movement of electrons through Complex III is known as the Q cycle. This cycle begins with the binding of two molecules of CoQ (QH2 and Q) to Complex III. QH2 has two electrons and two protons. Q has neither.
12. After QH2 and Q bind, QH2 sends one electron to Q, creating Q- and one electron to cytochrome C. The two protons QH2 was carrying are expelled into the intermembrane space. This converts QH2 to Q. Both cytochrome C and Q leave the complex, but Q- remains behind.
13. Next, another QH2 and another cytochrome C binds to Complex III. QH2 sends one electron to Q-, creating Q-2 and one electron to cytochrome C. It also expels its two protons to the intermembrane space and becomes Q. Then Q-2 extracts two protons from the matrix and becomes QH2. Last, cytochrome C, QH2, and Q all leave the complex. (As you can see, words describing the process are complicated. The figure shows it much more clearly).
14. Electron transfer through complex IV occurs one electron at a time (since one electron arrives at a time from cytochrome c). Interruption of electron flow can result in production of reactive oxygen species. Cellular enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase (see below) help to deactivate superoxides.
15. In electron flow through complex IV, the first electron is transferred to copper and the second one is transferred to iron. Oxygen then binds to the iron first, followed by formation of a peroxide bridge between the iron and copper atoms. Addition of a third electron (to the oxygen on the copper) and binding of a proton from the matrix causes the O-O bond to be cleaved. A fourth electron then reduces the oxygen on the iron and a proton binds from the matrix as well. Last, two protons from the matrix bind to the hydroxyls on the iron and copper, forming two water molecules, which are released and the cycle is complete.
16. During electron movement through Complex IV, four protons are taken from the matrix and combined with oxygen to form two water molecules. In addition, four other protons are taken from the matrix by the complex and pumped outside the mitochondrial matrix. As a consequence, the proton numbers in the matrix decrease by 8 during the process. The proton numbers outside the mitochondrion INCREASE by four in the process, so the net difference is 12 protons just for movement through complex IV.
17. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) acts in a two step fashion to deactivate superoxides (O2-). In the first step, the oxidized form of SOD accepts an electron from O2, creating molecular oxygen and a reduced SOD. In the second step, the reduced SOD combines its extra electron with that of another O2- and two protons to create hydrogen peroxide and the oxidized form of SOD. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is converted to oxygen and water by the enzyme catalase.
1. ATP is created in oxidative phosphorylation by the movement of protons back into the mitochondrial matrix through complex V (also called the ATP synthase).
2. Two essential functions of electron transport - 1. Pump protons out of mitochondrial matrix and 2. Reoxidize NADH and FADH2 to NAD and FAD, respectively. In healthy, normal cells, oxidative phosphorylation is tightly coupled to electron transport.
This course in general biochemistry is intended to integrate information about metabolic pathways with respiration (respiratory control) and initiate the student into a microscopic world where blueprints are made of deoxyribonucleic acids, factories operate using enzymes, and the exchange rate is in ATPs rather than Yens or Euros. Beyond explaining terms, and iterating reactions and metabolic pathways, this course strives to establish that the same principles that govern the behavior of the world around us also govern the transactions inside this microscopic world of the living cell. And by studying and applying these principles, we begin to understand cellular and bodily processes that include sensory mechanisms.
1. Lipids, Membranes and Transport
2. Electron Transport, Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial 3. Transport Systems
3. Lipid Metabolism
4. Nucleotide Metabolism
5. DNA Replication