Copyright Information: Erik Demaine. 6.851 Advanced Data Structures, Spring 2012. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), http://ocw.mit.edu (Accessed 4 Apr, 2016). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
"Persistence" - remembering all past versions of a data structure ("partial persistence"), being able to modify them - forking off new ones ("full persistence"), and merging different versions into one ("confluent persistence").
Data structures play a central role in modern computer science. You interact with data structures even more often than with algorithms (think Google, your mail server, and even your network routers). In addition, data structures are essential building blocks in obtaining efficient algorithms.
For a list of major results and current directions of research in data structures covered by this course, please see the syllabus.