Goals: - To find the zeros of the derivative of the Weierstrass phe-function associated to a lattice - To use the ODE established in the previous lecture to analyze the values of the Weierstrass phe-function at the zeros of its derivative and to show that these values are nonvanishing analytic (holomorphic) functions on the upper half-plane - To introduce the notion of order for an elliptic function, namely the finite positive integer which is the number of times the function assumes any value in the extended complex plane (Riemann sphere) Topics: Upper half-plane, invariants for complex tori, lattice (or) grid in the plane, fundamental parallelogram (or) period parallelogram associated to a lattice, complex torus associated to a lattice, doubly-periodic meromorphic function (or) elliptic function associated to a lattice, Weierstrass phe-function associated to a lattice, ordinary differential equation satisfied by the Weierstrass phe-function, simple zero, pole of order three, isolated double pole, Argument Principle, Residue theorem, order of an elliptic function, automorphic function (or) automorphic form, modular function (or) modular form, congruence mod two subgroup of the unimodular group, even function, odd function
The subject of algebraic curves (equivalently compact Riemann surfaces) has its origins going back to the work of Riemann, Abel, Jacobi, Noether, Weierstrass, Clifford and Teichmueller. It continues to be a source for several hot areas of current research. Its development requires ideas from diverse areas such as analysis, PDE, complex and real differential geometry, algebra---especially commutative algebra and Galois theory, homological algebra, number theory, topology and manifold theory. The course begins by introducing the notion of a Riemann surface followed by examples. Then the classification of Riemann surfaces is achieved on the basis of the fundamental group by the use of covering space theory and uniformisation. This reduces the study of Riemann surfaces to that of subgroups of Moebius transformations. The case of compact Riemann surfaces of genus 1, namely elliptic curves, is treated in detail. The algebraic nature of elliptic curves and a complex analytic construction of the moduli space of elliptic curves is given.